Acts Chapter 28

(Acts 28:1)
And when they were escaped, then they knew that the island was called Melita.

  • Prophecy fulfilled, all make it to safety, none are lost
  • It must be remembered that they previously, while coming into shore, did not know which island it was
  • This today is Malta, or "honey"
  • The reason they landed here is that the wind, Euroclydon, is what would have brought them there, by traditional direction of that particular trade wind
  • Today, the exact bay with that creek is called, "St. Paul's Bay"

(Acts 27:39)
And when it was day, they knew not the land: but they discovered a certain creek with a shore, into the which they were minded, if it were possible, to thrust in the ship.

(Acts 28:2)
And the barbarous people shewed us no little kindness: for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold.

  • If they all had survived the storm and then come ashore, only to be killed, it would not be prophecy fulfilled, because God had said, "No loss of any man's life"!
  • The term "barbarous" merely meant, at that time, "a people whose language we do not understand"
  • "No little kindness" means they showed them a lot of kindness
  • The rainy season for Malta is October-ish, probably when this all transpired
  • Imagine seeing a whole bunch of people emerge from the ocean safely in a cold storm that should have killed them!
  • This is a God thing because, if God can make our enemies to be at peace with us, then surely He can make strangers treat us like friends or even family in adversity, even if they just met you a moment ago
  • As Matthew Henry put it, "The Samaritan is a better neighbour to the poor wounded man than the priest or Levite. "
  • They were acting Christlike without knowing Christ yet

(Proverbs 17:17)
A friend loveth at all times, and a brother is born for adversity.

(Acts 28:3)
And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid them on the fire, there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand.

  • Reptiles are cold blooded, so being in the cold, they are idle, temporarily hibernating until the warm sun arrives. The heat of the fire awakened it
  • Obviously this was a rather large fire, like a small bonfire, needing a large infusion of wood, because the stick bundle hides the viper from Paul until it is thrown in
  • Paul, ever the servant, helping to feed the fire to keep everyone warm who was wet and cold from the sea and the weather
  • Paul was the most prominent prisoner, a natural born leader, a little rough around the edges, so God makes him to stand out a little
  • That it fastened onto his hand, as he drew his hand out from the sticks, letting them go, was visible to all, as would have been his shocked face, had he been shocked. His shrieking or screaming or yelling would also have been heard had he done those things but, alas, he did not.

(Mark 9:35)
And he sat down, and called the twelve, and saith unto them, If any man desire to be first, the same shall be last of all, and servant of all.

(Amos 5:19)
As if a man did flee from a lion, and a bear met him; or went into the house, and leaned his hand on the wall, and a serpent bit him.


  1. The serpent has always been our enemy
  2. God calls serpents beasts
  3. Serpents often hide in brush, branches, hedges, curled up inside holes, even large flowers, plants of their own shape
  4. The serpent wants to kill and destroy
  5. The serpent can and will kill and destroy
  6. Serpents creep slowly and subtly to approach prey
  7. The serpent was defeated at the Cross, now is defeated through prayer and careful study, by God for us on our behalf and, future, by the LORD Himself

the serpent
Serpent hiding in a plant

(Genesis 3:1)
Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?

(Genesis 3:2)
And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden:

(Genesis 3:4)
And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die:

(Genesis 3:13)
And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.

(Genesis 3:14)
And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life:

(Genesis 49:17)
Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward.

(Exodus 4:3)
And he said, Cast it on the ground. And he cast it on the ground, and it became a serpent; and Moses fled from before it.

(Exodus 7:9)
When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying, Shew a miracle for you: then thou shalt say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and cast it before Pharaoh, and it shall become a serpent.

(Exodus 7:10)
And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so as the LORD had commanded: and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and it became a serpent.

(Exodus 7:12)
For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents: but Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods.

(Exodus 7:15)
Get thee unto Pharaoh in the morning; lo, he goeth out unto the water; and thou shalt stand by the river's brink against he come; and the rod which was turned to a serpent shalt thou take in thine hand.

(Numbers 21:6)
And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died.

(Numbers 21:7)
Therefore the people came to Moses, and said, We have sinned, for we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that he take away the serpents from us. And Moses prayed for the people.

(Numbers 21:8)
And the LORD said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole: and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he looketh upon it, shall live.

(Numbers 21:9)
And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived.

(Deuteronomy 8:15)
Who led thee through that great and terrible wilderness, wherein were fiery serpents, and scorpions, and drought, where there was no water; who brought thee forth water out of the rock of flint;

(Deuteronomy 32:24)
They shall be burnt with hunger, and devoured with burning heat, and with bitter destruction: I will also send the teeth of beasts upon them, with the poison of serpents of the dust.

(2 Kings 18:4)
He removed the high places, and brake the images, and cut down the groves, and brake in pieces the brasen serpent that Moses had made: for unto those days the children of Israel did burn incense to it: and he called it Nehushtan.

(Job 26:13)
By his spirit he hath garnished the heavens; his hand hath formed the crooked serpent.

(Psalms 58:4)
Their poison is like the poison of a serpent: they are like the deaf adder that stoppeth her ear;

(Psalms 140:3)
They have sharpened their tongues like a serpent; adders' poison is under their lips. Selah.

(Proverbs 23:32)
At the last it biteth like a serpent, and stingeth like an adder.

(Pr overbs 30:19)
The way of an eagle in the air; the way of a serpent upon a rock; the way of a ship in the midst of the sea; and the way of a man with a maid.

(Ecclesiastes 10:8)
He that diggeth a pit shall fall into it; and whoso breaketh an hedge, a serpent shall bite him.

(Ecclesiastes 10:11)
Surely the serpent will bite without enchantment; and a babbler is no better.

(Isaiah 14:29)
Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the rod of him that smote thee is broken: for out of the serpent's root shall come forth a cockatrice, and his fruit shall be a fiery flying serpent.

(Isaiah 27:1)
In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea.

(Isaiah 30:6)
The burden of the beasts of the south: into the land of trouble and anguish, from whence come the young and old lion, the viper and fiery flying serpent, they will carry their riches upon the shoulders of young asses, and their treasures upon the bunches of camels, to a people that shall not profit them.

(Isaiah 65:25)
The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, and the lion shall eat straw like the bullock: and dust shall be the serpent's meat. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain, saith the LORD.

(Jeremiah 8:17)
For, behold, I will send serpents, cockatrices, among you, which will not be charmed, and they shall bite you, saith the LORD.

(Jeremiah 46:22)
The voice thereof shall go like a serpent; for they shall march with an army, and come against her with axes, as hewers of wood.

(Amos 5:19)
As if a man did flee from a lion, and a bear met him; or went into the house, and leaned his hand on the wall, and a serpent bit him.

(Amos 9:3)
And though they hide themselves in the top of Carmel, I will search and take them out thence; and though they be hid from my sight in the bottom of the sea, thence will I command the serpent, and he shall bite them:

(Micah 7:17)
They shall lick the dust like a serpent, they shall move out of their holes like worms of the earth: they shall be afraid of the LORD our God, and shall fear because of thee.

(Matthew 7:10)
Or if he ask a fish, will he give him a serpent?

(Matthew 10:16)
Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves.

(Matthew 23:33)
Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?

(Mark 16:18)
They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover.

(Luke 10:19)
Behold, I give unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall by any means hurt you.

(Luke 11:11)
If a son shall ask bread of any of you that is a father, will he give him a stone? or if he ask a fish, will he for a fish give him a serpent?

(John 3:14)
And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up:

(1 Corinthians 10:9)
Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.

(2 Corinthians 11:3)
But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ.

(James 3:7)
For every kind of beasts, and of birds, and of serpents, and of things in the sea, is tamed, and hath been tamed of mankind:

(Revelation 9:19)
For their power is in their mouth, and in their tails: for their tails were like unto serpents, and had heads, and with them they do hurt.

(Revelation 12:9)
And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.

(Revelation 12:14)
And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent.

(Revelation 12:15)
And the serpent cast out of his mouth water as a flood after the woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood.

(Revelation 20:2)
And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years,

(Acts 28:4)
And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.

  • They do not know Paul, so they have their own sense of internal justice in their minds
  • This is perhaps innate in mankind to think this way about bad things befalling strangers, or cultural, as in, "When you see a man being attacked by a wild, venomous creature without provocation, it is wise to assume that he is wicked and has done something wrong for which the gods are seeking revenge"

(Romans 2:14)
For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves:

(Numbers 35:31)
Moreover ye shall take no satisfaction for the life of a murderer, which is guilty of death: but he shall be surely put to death.

(Acts 28:5)
And he shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm.

  • If God is done with you, serpent or no serpent, you are finished
  • Paul here shows no fear of any danger, knowing God has a plan for him at Rome
  • If God is not done with you, neither venomous serpents, nor lions, nor wolves nor mankind cannot kill you
  • Paul has been beaten and left fore dead more than once, now shipwrecked, so this is just a momentary annoyance.

(Luke 10:19)
Behold, I give unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall by any means hurt you.

(Mark 16:18)
They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover.

(Isaiah 54:17)
No weapon that is formed against thee shall prosper; and every tongue that shall rise against thee in judgment thou shalt condemn. This is the heritage of the servants of the LORD, and their righteousness is of me, saith the LORD.

(Acts 28:6)
Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen, or fallen down dead suddenly: but after they had looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and said that he was a god.

  • Superstition takes in, as they witness a genuine miracle of God, but look to the man in whom God does the miracle, rather than the God Who does the miracle
  • They probably stared at him for some time, waiting for symptoms and eventual death
  • They had apparently seen others get bitten, get ill and die, without exception, so this was novel, in need of some explanation

(Acts 14:9)
The same heard Paul speak: who stedfastly beholding him, and perceiving that he had faith to be healed,

(Acts 14:10)
Said with a loud voice, Stand upright on thy feet. And he leaped and walked.

(Acts 14:11)
And when the people saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voices, saying in the speech of Lycaonia, The gods are come down to us in the likeness of men.

(Acts 28:7)
In the same quarters were possessions of the chief man of the island, whose name was Publius; who received us, and lodged us three days courteously.

  • Nothing being too big for our God, our author Dr. Luke simply, instantly moves on in the narrative to the next scene
  • Being visitors, apparently a rare thing to have on the island, they are brought before the head man

(Acts 28:8)
And it came to pass, that the father of Publius lay sick of a fever and of a bloody flux: to whom Paul entered in, and prayed, and laid his hands on him, and healed him.

  • This is a chance to open the door to the Gospel, them knowing about false miracles as well as living in God's Creation, now seeing God's Hand, there would be revival breaking out
  • This is not a sign for the Jews, so not a sign gift expressed, but rather prayer, laying on of hands much like we would and do do today, and God doing the healing through us (here through Paul)

(Acts 28:9)
So when this was done, others also, which had diseases in the island, came, and were healed:

  • A normal reaction to our illness is seeking a cure
  • Honest seeking, needing spiritual healing and wanting it is rewarded by God with both sometimes, as we need it
  • God know the hearts and does not always heal the sick, or even heal us, unless He wills it.

(Acts 28:10)
Who also honoured us with many honours; and when we departed, they laded us with such things as were necessary.

  • Gifts for using their gifts, very appropriate.
  • This is God's provision, for doing His work

(Acts 28:11)
And after three months we departed in a ship of Alexandria, which had wintered in the isle, whose sign was Castor and Pollux.

  • Castor and Pollux are merely banners, signs such as a shipping company today uses on the sides of theirs
  • They are twin stars, worshipped as gods in the constellation Gemini
  • They were considered like St. Christopher, the R.C.C. patron saint for traveling seamen
  • To Paul and the entourage, this is merely a boat, a means to travel and nothing more
  • This record and mention here just shows how Luke was excellent at recording the detailed history for us.
  • Lesson learned from the shipwreck, the people with Paul stay safe in the harbor for the winter

(Acts 28:12)
And landing at Syracuse, we tarried there three days.

  • This city is on the eastern coast of Sicily, settled by Corinthians around 734 B.C.
  • It had a rich history with battles, wars ca. 300-400 B.C.
  • It was a good port for sea travel and shipping

(Acts 28:13)
And from thence we fetched a compass, and came to Rhegium: and after one day the south wind blew, and we came the next day to Puteoli:

  • To "fetch a compass" merely means to circle around something
  • Puteoli was a harbor city for Rome, even though it is 170 miles away
  • Once called also Pozzolana, it is today called Pozzuoli in Italy
  • It had the Flavian Amphitheater which held up to 60,000 people, built by Vespasian (69-79 A.D.)
  • Because of the volcanic activity in the area, it smelled of sulfur, hence the name Puteoli, from the Latin putere, "to stink". Having been in areas like this, I can attest to the natural beauty of thermal vents, but the smell can only be handled for a minute or so in close before one has to leave for safety reasons


To understand compass, simply think of "encompass", or to make a circuit around, go partly around something, or to march or walk around something, like you are inspecting it circumspectly, as in from all sides, or to surround something and hem it in on all sides, or to loop around an object (in this case a coastal area)” The Greek word rendered “fetched a compass” in Acts 28:13 further reinforces this idea. It is perierchomai, taken from peri– meaning “around” (as in the perimeter, “the actual distance around something”), and erchomai meaning “come, go.” To wit, perierchomai literally, simply means “to go around.”
To understand "fetch" in the original English meaning, know that it does not mean the same as it did in 1611, but rather meant “to move, or to maneuver, or to travel

So, to “fetch a compass” then literally means “travel in a circuit” or, say, “to move in a loop pattern” or “to curve or turn about” It is much simpler to believe the English as it is written, search the meanings of the words in English than to second guess the ability of the translators to accurately portray the Word of God. Numbers 34:5: “And the border shall fetch a compass from Azmon unto the river of Egypt, and the goings out of it shall be at the sea.

Joshua 15:3: “And it went out to the south side to Maaleh-acrabbim, and passed along to Zin, and ascended up on the south side unto Kadesh-barnea, and passed along to Hezron, and went up to Adar, and fetched a compass to Karkaa:

2 Samuel 5:23: “And when David enquired of the LORD, he said, Thou shalt not go up; but fetch a compass behind them, and come upon them over against the mulberry trees.

2 Kings 3:9: “So the king of Israel went, and the king of Judah, and the king of Edom: and they fetched a compass of seven days’ journey: and there was no water for the host, and for the cattle that followed them.

(Acts 28:14)
Where we found brethren, and were desired to tarry with them seven days: and so we went toward Rome.

  • We are not told by whom, but the Gospel was apparently received prior to this visit, presumably through evangelism by disciples of Paul or the other apostles. This is merely the fruit of The Dispersion
  • These brethren had known of Paul and so would have naturally wanted him to stay a few days, to learn it is certain, of his doctrine
  • Rome seems to be the final place where Paul trod this earth, though it is not 100% certain where he was martyred, it seems reasonable to assume so

(Acts 28:15)
And from thence, when the brethren heard of us, they came to meet us as far as Appii forum, and The three taverns: whom when Paul saw, he thanked God, and took courage.

  • "The Appii Forum" is a small town on the Appian Way, about fifty miles from Rome
  • The Three Taverns is about thirty three miles from Rome.
  • People walked to meet Paul who, by this time, was about to walk the rest of the way, or go on horseback, to Rome.

(Acts 28:16)
And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard: but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that kept him.

  • Perhaps because of trust, Paul has a little liberty extended to him

(Acts 28:17)
And it came to pass, that after three days Paul called the chief of the Jews together: and when they were come together, he said unto them, Men and brethren, though I have committed nothing against the people, or customs of our fathers, yet was I delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans.

  • In other words, "I am not come to attack or harass you Jews, let's get this straight"
  • "Further, as an innocent man, here I am in these chains"
  • Paul has been in chains since they left Jerusalem or even earlier in Acts 23:10

(Acts 28:18)
Who, when they had examined me, would have let me go, because there was no cause of death in me.

  • As any innocent person could say, even today, "If they had found a single thing wrong, I would not even be alive, let alone free"

(Acts 28:19)
But when the Jews spake against it, I was constrained to appeal unto Caesar; not that I had ought to accuse my nation of.

  • The only reason he was not released is that the conspirators argued against it, even knowing they had nothing on him!"
  • The legal system, allowing appeals, is what (only in the earthly realm) saved Paul from a certain death, plus God's Providence and future plans for Paul, allowing the exposure of the Jews' plot to kill Paul

(Acts 28:20)
For this cause therefore have I called for you, to see you, and to speak with you: because that for the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain.

  • It must be understood that, to the unbelieving Jews here, "the hope of Israel' means the resurrection of ISRAEL, not the Resurrection of the LORD Jesus Christ
  • Paul is bound precisely because of the real hope of Israel, the Resurrection of the LORD Jesus Christ, not the resurrection of the nation of Israel at all

(Acts 28:21)
And they said unto him, We neither received letters out of Judaea concerning thee, neither any of the brethren that came shewed or spake any harm of thee.

  • This council has heard no evidence against Paul from any corner, yet here he is, still bound

(Acts 28:22)
But we desire to hear of thee what thou thinkest: for as concerning this sect, we know that every where it is spoken against.

  • This is God's providence again, opening a door for the Gospel
  • Even if Paul's reputation as a Christian did not precede him, the persecution of the Christians throughout the empire is well known, even if not understood well or even at all

(Acts 28:23)
And when they had appointed him a day, there came many to him into his lodging; to whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of God, persuading them concerning Jesus, both out of the law of Moses, and out of the prophets, from morning till evening.

  • More provision, visitors who will now hear the Gospel also, willingly coming
  • This consists of Old Testament Law and Old Testament prophets for the Jews who visit
  • This is all day, every day, so think about how many people, some merely out of curiosity will show up, not really knowing what to expect Paul to say.

(Acts 28:24)
And some believed the things which were spoken, and some believed not.

  • It is the same then as today, as in the Old Testament, free will exercised, a choice made, no coercion, only preaching the Gospel, no altar calls, no coming forward, raising hands, no "every head bowed and every eye closed", just preaching and leaving it to the individual to accept or reject, to believe or not believe
  • Paul, however, always had follow up for the ones who believed, in discipling, raising up leaders for his absence, planting home churches, etc.

(Acts 28:25-27)
And when they agreed not among themselves, they departed, after that Paul had spoken one word, Well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers, Saying, Go unto this people, and say, Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive: For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.

  • Pride causes both spiritual blindness and spiritual deafness
  • Quoting Scripture makes the ones who will not believe run
  • Quoting Scripture makes the enemy who hates us run
  • Quoting Scripture makes the one who hated Jesus to run (Matthew 4:11, Luke 4:13)
  • This passage from Isaiah six is recorded in all four Gospels, as Jesus quoted it, and by Paul in Romans


(Isaiah 6:9-10)
And he said, Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed.

(Matthew 13:14-15)
And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive: For this people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.

(Mark 4:12)
That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them.

(Luke 8:10)
And he said, Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God: but to others in parables; that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand.

(John 12:39-40)
Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias said again, He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal them.

(Romans 11:8-10)
(According as it is written, God hath given them the spirit of slumber, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear;) unto this day. And David saith, Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a stumblingblock, and a recompence unto them: Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see, and bow down their back alway.

(Acts 28:28)
Be it known therefore unto you, that the salvation of God is sent unto the Gentiles, and that they will hear it.

  • God had prepared the hearts of the Gentiles in His plan of salvation
  • The phrase "be it known unto you" is a public, legal proclamation, declaration and very corporate, wholesale public announcement very un-private
  • It is a finality to them, as in, "You had your chance. That was the only one you will get"
  • Because it is public, it is aloud for all there in the entire city to hear, to hear about through them, like posting wanted signs ion every post, tree, house, street corner, traffic light pole, in every store window and every home window
  • Dictionary synonym: "to give information to other people, especially in an indirect way"
  • To no one on earth while alive and before God on judgment day, they would not be able to say, "We never heard". Such will be the case for all who ever lived

(Acts 28:29)
And when he had said these words, the Jews departed, and had great reasoning among themselves.

  • The official decisions is "INDECISION", which means simply more talking, no conclusions

(Acts 28:30-31)
And Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house, and received all that came in unto him, Preaching the kingdom of God, and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ, with all confidence, no man forbidding him.

  • So he pays rent to rent a home, invites people in for the Gospel message, and is under house arrest for no crimes committed, as an innocent man
  • On top of this, he is unhindered by the authorities, the Jewish mobs, the Roman pagan mobs



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