Dinosaurs On The Ark?

When a person asks a question that they will never accept an answer to, they are not asking a question, they are taunting, mocking, deriding, disrespecting-not asking an actual answer. You discover this when you present an an answer and they do not accept, whereas they previously said "IF you can show me where it says in the Bible that dinosaurs lived with man, I will believe it." , except they do not want to believe, and that is not why they are asking. They know full well that they will not accept the answer, do their own research, do not want to know the truth, but rather are asking merely to mock.
  • Any person who says that "dinosaurs died 65,000,000 years ago" has no basis for this belief from either science or Scripture...both contradict this
  • The Scriptures clearly teach that all animals went on the ark
  • The Scriptures clearly teach that all animals came off of the ark
  • The Scriptures clearly teach that all animals lived with mankind after the Flood
  • The history, archaeology and science have always backed that up
  • Dinosaurs were called dragons and the word "dinosaur" did not appear until it was coined
  • Outside of the book of Revelation, which clearly speaks of the dragon as the enemy, the serpent in the Garden, Satan, all others speak of a dragon or dragons as an actual creature
  • God, in Job clearly, unequivocally, unambiguously and undeniably describes two dinosaurs in chapters forty and forty one, and say for Job to "behold" (look) at them....impossible to do if they 'went extinct 65,000,000 years ago"

Job and the Dinosaurs

On Land

(Job 40:15-24)
Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox. Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his belly. He moveth his tail like a cedar: the sinews of his stones are wrapped together. His bones are as strong pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron. He is the chief of the ways of God: he that made him can make his sword to approach unto him. Surely the mountains bring him forth food, where all the beasts of the field play. He lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed, and fens. The shady trees cover him with their shadow; the willows of the brook compass him about. Behold, he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not: he trusteth that he can draw up Jordan into his mouth. He taketh it with his eyes: his nose pierceth through snares.

His Characteristics
  • The implied answer to all of God's questions to Job is a resounding "NO!"....this cannot be denied
  • The Behemoth was made with mankind ("which I made with thee"), in the same creation week, not "65 million years ago or before"
  • it was a plant eater
  • Very strong in his legs, like a huge lizard
  • Its tail is like a cedar tree....elephants, rhinos, hippos have, teeny, tiny, wimpy tails!
  • His testicles (stones) are wrapped very tight by strong tendons
  • His bones were extremely strong
  • He is probably the biggest dinosaur
  • God alone can kill him, because God is bigger and stronger, and his creator
  • He can drink up a ton of water ,taking his time, because he can slowly drink in a river like the Jordan
  • No one can trap him with a snare...just his nose can break it, not even his body

In the Sea

(Job Chapter 41-ALL)
Canst thou draw out leviathan with an hook? or his tongue with a cord which thou lettest down? Canst thou put an hook into his nose? or bore his jaw through with a thorn? Will he make many supplications unto thee? will he speak soft words unto thee? Will he make a covenant with thee? wilt thou take him for a servant for ever?
Wilt thou play with him as with a bird? or wilt thou bind him for thy maidens? Shall the companions make a banquet of him? shall they part him among the merchants?
Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? or his head with fish spears? Lay thine hand upon him, remember the battle, do no more. Behold, the hope of him is in vain: shall not one be cast down even at the sight of him? None is so fierce that dare stir him up: who then is able to stand before me?
Who hath prevented me, that I should repay him? whatsoever is under the whole heaven is mine. I will not conceal his parts, nor his power, nor his comely proportion. Who can discover the face of his garment? or who can come to him with his double bridle? Who can open the doors of his face? his teeth are terrible round about.
His scales are his pride, shut up together as with a close seal. One is so near to another, that no air can come between them. They are joined one to another, they stick together, that they cannot be sundered.
By his neesings a light doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning. Out of his mouth go burning lamps, and sparks of fire leap out. Out of his nostrils goeth smoke, as out of a seething pot or caldron. His breath kindleth coals, and a flame goeth out of his mouth.In his neck remaineth strength, and sorrow is turned into joy before him. The flakes of his flesh are joined together: they are firm in themselves; they cannot be moved. His heart is as firm as a stone; yea, as hard as a piece of the nether millstone. When he raiseth up himself, the mighty are afraid: by reason of breakings they purify themselves.
The sword of him that layeth at him cannot hold: the spear, the dart, nor the habergeon. He esteemeth iron as straw, and brass as rotten wood. The arrow cannot make him flee: slingstones are turned with him into stubble. Darts are counted as stubble: he laugheth at the shaking of a spear. Sharp stones are under him: he spreadeth sharp pointed things upon the mire. He maketh the deep to boil like a pot: he maketh the sea like a pot of ointment. He maketh a path to shine after him; one would think the deep to be hoary. Upon earth there is not his like, who is made without fear. He beholdeth all high things: he is a king over all the children of pride.
  • You cannot fish for him with a hook and line
  • You cannot lasso him with a rope
  • You cannot penetrate his nose even with a hook
  • You cannot pierce his jaw with any spiny thing
  • He does not need anything from you
  • His body cannot be pierced with iron hooks either
  • You mess with him and you will never forget it
  • Just the sight of him makes people faint
  • No one pokes at him to even stir him up, out of fear
  • No one came before God
  • God own it all, as Creator
  • God allows him to be seen plainly to Job and others
  • Because he is so huge, one cannot make a double bridle for him which is designed even today for huge, strong horses, and cannot wear one, and not whales. This indicated a dragon head that a bridle goes over-because it is shaped like a horse's head, impossible for a fish or whale because of the shape

  • Strong jaws, nasty teeth

The Animals On the Ark

(Genesis 6:19-22)
And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive. And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.

(Genesis 7:2-3)
Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female. Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth.

The Animals Off of the Ark

(Genesis 8:17-18)
Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth. And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him:

Dinosaurs (Dragons)

Every ancient culture had drawings, carvings, stories of dragons, before world travel and before the discovery of the first dinosaur. Not a single one of these stories is written in a literary style that even hints or suggest that they were allegories, but rather factual. They had a completely different style for satire, non-literal things.

"Dinosaurs (dragons)First discovered in 1822-Mantell. The term "Dinosauria" was Invented by Sir Richard Owen in 1841-1842 to describe these "fearfully great reptiles". Before that time, in all ancient and modern cultures, they were called "dragons"

Gideon Algernon Mantell (1790-1852) discovered the first fossil teeth and skeletons and called them "Iguanodon"

Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Historians

Webster's Dictionary:
drag.on \'drag-en\ n. dracon-,draco serpent,dragon, [fr.GK drakon;akin to OE torht bright,Gk derkesthai to see,look at]
  1. Archaic: a huge serpent
  2. A fabulous animal usually represented as a monstrous winged and scaly serpent or saurian with a crested head and enormous claws.
Tormont Illustrated Encyclopedia:
n. A fabulous monster, represented usually as a gigantic reptile breathing fire and having a lion's claws, the tail of a serpent, wings and scaly skin. b. A figure or other representation of this creature.
Archaic. A large snake or serpent [Middle English drago(u)n, from Old French dragon, from Latin draco (stem dracon-), dragon, serpent, from Greek drakon, serpent]

A well known, old science book, the HISTORIA ANIMALIUM, by Conrad Gesne claims that dragons were still not extinct in the 1500's. But the animals were said to be "extremely rare and relatively small by then."

Webster’s 1946 Dictionary
Webster’s 1899 Dictionary (Draco: Latin for Dragon

Dinosaurs in the Scriptures

When mentioning dragons, fiery flying serpents, the context is too many times to deny with other known creatures, meaning that, if the other creatures are real, the dragons, fiery flying serpents cannot suddenly, in the same verse, be mythological, because we wish them to be. If the dragons and fiery flying serpents were imaginary, then so are the other beasts, creatures.

(Isaiah 30:6)
The burden of the beasts of the south: into the land of trouble and anguish, from whence come the young and old lion, the viper and fiery flying serpent, they will carry their riches upon the shoulders of young asses, and their treasures upon the bunches of camels, to a people that shall not profit them.

(Deuteronomy 32:33)
Their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom of asps.

(Nehemiah 2:13)
And I went out by night by the gate of the valley, even before the dragon well, and to the dung port, and viewed the walls of Jerusalem, which were broken down, and the gates thereof were consumed with fire.

(Job 30:29)
I am a brother to dragons, and a companion to owls.

(Psalms 44:19)
Though thou hast sore broken us in the place of dragons, and covered us with the shadow of death.

(Psalms 74:13)
Thou didst divide the sea by thy strength: thou brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters.

(Psalms 91:13)
Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder: the young lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under feet.

(Psalms 148:7)
Praise the LORD from the earth, ye dragons, and all deeps:

(Isaiah 13:22)
And the wild beasts of the islands shall cry in their desolate houses, and dragons in their pleasant palaces: and her time is near to come, and her days shall not be prolonged.

(Isaiah 27:1)
In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea.

(Isaiah 34:13)
And thorns shall come up in her palaces, nettles and brambles in the fortresses thereof: and it shall be an habitation of dragons, and a court for owls.

(Isaiah 35:7)
And the parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water: in the habitation of dragons, where each lay, shall be grass with reeds and rushes.

(Isaiah 43:20)
The beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons and the owls: because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to my people, my chosen.

(Isaiah 51:9)
Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the LORD; awake, as in the ancient days, in the generations of old. Art thou not it that hath cut Rahab, and wounded the dragon?

(Jeremiah 9:11)
And I will make Jerusalem heaps, and a den of dragons; and I will make the cities of Judah desolate, without an inhabitant.

(Jeremiah 10:22)
Behold, the noise of the bruit is come, and a great commotion out of the north country, to make the cities of Judah desolate, and a den of dragons.

(Jeremiah 14:6)
And the wild asses did stand in the high places, they snuffed up the wind like dragons; their eyes did fail, because there was no grass.

(Jeremiah 49:33)
And Hazor shall be a dwelling for dragons, and a desolation for ever: there shall no man abide there, nor any son of man dwell in it.

(Jeremiah 51:34)
Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon hath devoured me, he hath crushed me, he hath made me an empty vessel, he hath swallowed me up like a dragon, he hath filled his belly with my delicates, he hath cast me out.

(Jeremiah 51:37)
And Babylon shall become heaps, a dwellingplace for dragons, an astonishment, and an hissing, without an inhabitant.

(Ezekiel 29:3)
Speak, and say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers, which hath said, My river is mine own, and I have made it for myself.

(Micah 1:8)
Therefore I will wail and howl, I will go stripped and naked: I will make a wailing like the dragons, and mourning as the owls.

(Malachi 1:3)
And I hated Esau, and laid his mountains and his heritage waste for the dragons of the wilderness.

  • What Is A Dinosaur?

The first discovery of dinosaur bones was by a Dr. Mantell, and his wife Mary Anne. In 1822, they found a rock with a fossil tooth in it. Sent this and more like it to Baron Georges Cuvier-a Creationist. He was also one of the founders of Paleontology. He believed that fossils were the result of the flood of Noah. He thought that these fossils were from some extinct rhinoceros species. The doctor then took the fossils to a man who studied the lizards and reptiles of Mexico and South America. The man called them IGUANODON. Later, William Buckland, a geologist at Oxford University(also a Creationist), gave them the name Megalosaurus. Soon more fossil bones like these were found. The name Dinosauria was given by Sir Richard Owen, superintendent of the Natural History Department of the British Museum. Dinosaur means "Terrible Lizard". All dinosaurs are thought to have evolved from a reptile called a thecodont.

  • How Big Were They?
  • The smallest dinosaurs were about the size of a chicken, and the longest is Seismosaurus or "Earth Shaker", 140 feet long and about fifty tons. The Pteranodon found in Glen Rose, Texas was the size of an F-10! It could not ever fly in the present atmosphere. The air pressure is too low. The pre-flood atmosphere is the only one that allows for flight for this size bird. "The Present being the key to the Past" would not account for the Pteranodon flight. If the past atmosphere was the same as the present, then it could not fly. Evolution says that the past atmosphere was the same as today.

    A Tyrannosaurus Rex found in Glen Rose, Texas had teeth six inches long in a four foot mouth. The reason for the large size can NOT be determined by Uniformitarianism. "The Present being the key to the Past" would not account for the amount of food required to feed them. If the earth were the same then as now, then they couldn't have survived. ONLY the Pre-Flood conditions would be sufficient to support such eating machines. Reptiles grow throughout their lives and this would also account for their size. If they lived to be several hundred years and grew the entire time on luxuriant plant life, then you WOULD get a large reptile.

    The Fossil record confirms the Pre-Flood conditions of Tropical climate and abundant plant life as described in the Bible. There is no proof that large Dinosaurs like Tyrannosaurus Rex ate meat. The Spider Monkey, as well as many other animals, eat fruit or vegetation and have nasty looking teeth. One cannot tell, from the teeth, what the diet is or was.

  • Why Did They Die?
  • Many theories about why the dinosaurs died exist among the world's scientists. They simply do not know. The Bible tells why.

  • "Early" Rodents ate all the dinosaur eggs.
    This is preposterous as they supposedly lived alongside each other for millions of years!

  • Overweight dinosaurs got slipped disks. This rendered them unable to find food.


  • World wide heat wave of several degrees killed them.

  • The dinosaurs' testicles were caused to be sterile from the heat, and the rest is history!

  • They were fussy eaters and their food favorites went extinct.

  • They couldn't distinguish well, because of their small brains, so they accidentally ate poisonous plants.

  • Massive case of constipation!

  • A Massive meteor hit the earth and the dust cloud caused a long winter, freezing them.

  • They passed too much gas, and formed a greenhouse effect! This is the latest theory.

  • Are They All Extinct?

  • To say that something doesn't exist is not scientific. You can't prove it.

    In order to say that dinosaurs are extinct you would have to have a person on every point on the earth, and in the oceans, at the same time. They would all say "there's none here" at the same time. Then you would have your answer. There is more than enough evidence to say safely that dinosaurs are not extinct. The only reason to believe that dinosaurs are extinct is the THEORY of Evolution, not the facts of science.

    France: Feb. 8, 1856-Some workmen were digging a railway tunnel and using gunpowder. After an explosion, they brought out a huge boulder. When they cracked the boulder open, out came a huge bat-like animal. It was still alive! Coming into the light, it flapped it's wings and made a hoarse noise, then died. It was leathery, black, oily, and thick skinned with a long neck, and had rows of sharp teeth in it's"beak-like mouth". It's wingspan was measured at ten feet, seven inches. It had four legs joined by a membrane, talons instead of feet and had left it's imprint in the cavity of the boulder. The students of paleontology immediately identified it as a pterodactyl. A scientist was called in to examine it. He positively concluded it was a Pterosaur. The next day, February 9, The Illustrated London News had a report of this discovery on p. 166. This creature could have survived several thousand years inside the rock in a state of suspended animation, but not several million years.

    Africa: The search is on for a large animal called by the natives "Mokele-Mbembe". As late as 1980 one native came to a missionary after just having seen a large, strange creature. The head was six to eight feet long, and "snake-like". The missionary later showed the native some dinosaur pictures,and the native positively identified it as a Sauropod. The native would have no way of knowing that dinosaurs are supposed to be extinct for 65 million years, without contact with an Evolutionary scientist. This obviously would not happen as most Evolutionary scientists do not go to the mission field to witness to African natives! Another sighting, about the same time, was by a young girl of the village. Caoning home next to Lake Tele,the girl got stuck on a sand bar. Every time she went to remove the canoe, something would push the canoe back onto the sand bar. Then in a moment, there was a great noise and splashing. An animal broke the surface " the size of ten elephants". She could not move, from fright. Her parents later came and got her. The tracks were still there, for hundreds of feet. The point is this: the natives don't think very much of these stories as they don't have a motive for making them up, and they don't have any reason to disbelieve them. They are not brainwashed into the evolutionary way of thinking as the only, and in many cases first, contact with the outside world is the missionary who has no desire to give them the theory of Evolution!

    Ancient Egypt: "Herodotus, the famous Greek explorer, described small flying reptiles in Ancient Egypt and Arabia. These animals sound amazingly like Rhamphorynchus. They had the same snake-like body, and the bat-like wings. Many had been killed near the city of Buto(Arabia). He was shown a canyon with many piles of their backbones and ribs.

    Herodotus said that these animals could sometimes be found in the spice groves. They were 'small in size and of various colors.' Large numbers would sometimes gather in the frankincense trees. Workers, when they wanted to gather the trees' valuable juices, would use smelly smoke to drive the flying reptiles away. The well-respected Greek, Aristotle said that, in his time, it was common knowledge that creatures like this also existed in Ethiopia. Similar animals (three feet long) were also described inIndia by the geographer Strabo."

    Ireland: (900 A.D.)"An Irish writer recorded an encounter with a large beast with 'iron' nails on it's tail which pointed backwards. It's head was shaped a little bit like a horse's. And it had thick legs with strong claws. Those details match features of the dinosaurs like the Kentrosaurus and the Stegosaurus. They had sharp-pointed spines on their tails, thick legs, strong claws, and long skulls."

    China: "Thousands of dragon stories and pictures can be found in ancient Chinese books and art. One interesting legend tells about a famous Chinese man named Yu. After the great world flood, Yu surveyed the land of China and divided it into two sections. He "built channels to drain the water off to sea" and helped make the land livable again. Many snakes and "dragons" were driven from the marshlands when Yu created the new farmlands. Some old Chinese books even tell of a family that kept "dragons" and raised the babies. In those days, Chinese kings used "dragons" for pulling royal chariots on special occasions."

    France: "The city of Nerluc was renamed in honor of the "dragon" there. This animal was bigger than an oxe and hadlong, sharp pointed horns on it's head. There were a number of different horned dinosaurs. The Tricerotops is one example."

    Europe:"A well known , old science book, the HISTORIA ANIMALIUM, claims that dragons were still not extinct in the 1500's. But the anmimals were said to be extremely rare and relatively small by then."

    Italy: " A scientist named Ulysses Aldrovandus carefully described a creature seen on a road in Northern Italy. The date was May 13, 1572. The poor, rare creature was so little that a farmer killed it just by knocking it on the head with his walking stick. The animal had done nothing wrong except hiss at the farmer's oxen as they approached it on the road. The scientist got the dead body and made measurements and a drawing. He even had the animal mounted for a museum. It had a long neck, a very long tail, and a fat body. The skeletons of a number of ancient reptile-like creatures match this basic description."

    Scandinavia: "One old legend describes a reptile-like animal that had a body about the size of a large cow. It's two back legs were long and strong, but it's front legs are remarkably short. And it's jaws were quite large. One of the unique things about many dinosaurs was their short front legs, compared to their long, strong back legs. Many also had large jaws. Examples of dinosaurs which fit are the Edmontosaurus and Iguanodon, and Tyrannosaurus Rex, etc."

    Babylon: "One 'dragon' story from the ancient land of Sumer in Babylon tells of the hero Gilgamesh. He decided to make a name for himself by traveling to a distant land to cut great cedar trees needed for his city. He reached the forest with fifty volunteers and discovered a huge reptile-likeanimal which ate trees and reeds. The story simply says that Gilgamesh killed it and cut off it's head for a trophy."

    NOTE: Almost all ancient peoples had legends of dragons, even those who were on faraway, remote islands. They couldn't have had contact with each other, according to the theory of Evolution. This is way too coincidental to brush off. Any historian will tell you that there has to be some truth to any legends of the same type if they originate from various independent sources, as these do.

    Conclusion: The people must have had visual sighting to describe them in such detail. Really, objectively the only reason to doubt these stories is the THEORY of Evolution, not the facts of science or history. Who knows? Maybe the writer of the popular television show The Flintstones was right-Fred could have had Dino for a pet!

  • Are There Dinosaurs In The Bible?

    The Bible speaks of God as the Creator of ALL creatures (the word creature is from Creator or Creation), including dinosaurs. In Genesis chapter one, the Hebrew word "tannin" is used to describe a certain creature. This word means "dragon". The fact that so many cultures have stories of dragons is proof that they must have seen them. There are just too many to brush off as myth. The people writing them left no indication that they intended them to be myths. At the end of the book of Job there are two great creatures described which, if taken literally, can only be dinosaurs. They are the Leviathan, and the Behemoth. Read the descriptions carefully and see if these are not some horribly, awesome creature.(JOB chaps.38-40).

    There are other references- to large serpents, land animals, creeping things, etc. Noah most assuredly took the dinosaurs on the ark. The capacity of the ark was 3,600,000 cubic feet. That's three football fields long, three decks,more than enough space to not only hold all of the creatures, but room left over for each one to have it's own television set! Noah could have taken young ones of each type, or eggs.

  • What Did They Look Like?

    The problem with fossils is that they don't describe what the whole animal looked like. Hair, fur, skin, fleshy knobs, ears, nostrils, muscles,etc. are not discernible. The paleontologist has to make a guess as to what the creature looked like. They can be totally incorrect. The fossils do not come with a sign describing themselves either.

    For instance, the brontosaurus does not exist. The head was never found. The head was used from another dinosaur found three to four miles away. The skeleton was from a type of Diplodocus, and the skull was from an Apatosaurus. The museums and textbooks carried this dinosaur for one hundred years. This is not scientific integrity at all, but the story gets much worse as we will see when we get to "humanoid" fossils.

  • What Did They Eat?

    The Bible says that all animals ate plants in the beginning. There is no reason, scientifically, to doubt this. The traditional view of Paleontologists has been that many nasty looking dinosaurs ate meat, such as Tyrannosaurus Rex. They simply do not know. The spider monkey of South America has very nasty canine teeth, yet it eats fruit. The Pre-Flood world is the only one that could have supported the size dinosaurs found in the fossil record. Uniformitarianism does not account for a way to feed an Ultrasaurus. If the "Present Is The Key To The Past" as they claim, then the present is nowhere near sufficient. Even elephants have a hard time today. Again, the fossil record shows that the earth, pole to pole, was lush and green (tropical).

    Dinosaurs Fit On The Ark

    "The dimensions of the ark are given in the Bible as 300 cubits long, fifty cubits wide and thirty cubits high. It had three decks. Regarding the cubit as eighteen inches, the floor space on one deck would be 33,750 square feet. On the three decks of the ark there was then a total of 101,250 square feet of deck space. But since it was likely that the small and medium-sized animals were put in cages, in tiers, one above the other, not only the floor space, but the cubic space must be considered. The cubic capacity of the ark, at 18 inches as the measure of cubit, was for each deck 500,000 cubic feet, or 1,500,000 cubic feet for the three decks.

    However, as we have seen, it is not at all certain that the cubit of the ark was eighteen inches. There was never any definite length of the cubit in ancient days. Different cubits existed. Most common was the cubit of the elbow, that is , the distance from the elbow to the finger tip. There was also the cubit of the arm pit or the distance of the whole arm. Naturally these lengths vary with the size of the person measured. The cubit also varied from country to country. Ancient Egypt had two lengths for it at different times. One was the length of a new-born child; the other was the length of king at a certain age. We may say that a cubit of 20.7 inches was about the standard measure of the Egyptian and also of the Assyrian, Chaldean, and Babylonian Empires. Moses was directed to work according to a pattern shown him. The so-called 'great cubit' of Ezekiel revealed to him by God was an ordinary cubit plus a hand's breadth, or about two feet. "Supposing this to have been the length of the cubit, the ark was then 600 feet long and 100 feet wide and sixty feet high, having a capacity of 3,600,000 cubic feet. An ordinary cattle car on the railroad carries of cattle, from eighteen to twenty head, or of hog from sixty to eighty head; or of sheep, from eighty to one hundred head. One thousand of such cars, duly proportioned, could be stored away in Noah's ark. Such was the capacity of Noah's ark, a ship whose dimensions have , from general misunderstanding of their true significance, have persistently ridiculed as unequal for the task. Certainly there was room in such a craft for one hundred menageries larger than Barnum, the great America showman, ever saw in his wildest reveries, and room to spare for food."

    It must also be remembered that the large species of animals are comparatively few, even including those that are now extinct. It has been estimated that land mammalia above the size of sheep at the present time number about 290; those from the sheep to the rats, 757; and those smaller than the rats, 1,359. The average size is about that of a cat, a pair of which would require less than two square feet of space. The second question concerns the problem of species. How many species were in the ark? The answer to that question depends upon how one regards the term species. Dr. Price writes: "And with the new light which we have received regarding the subject of species partly through experiments with changes in environments during the embryonic stage, and partly through crossing under the methods taught by Mendel, we now know that the old specific and generic distinctions were marked off on altogether too narrow lines. It is perfectly evident that both animals and plants have varied much more in a natural way than used to be though possible, and hence two or more comparatively different forms may very well be supposed to be of common descent. From this, it further follows that the problems of accounting for the modern diversity of animals as the survivors of the universal deluge has been greatly simplified, for the more variation we admit as possible, the easier it is to account for the present fauna and flora since fewer original forms would be required to begin the present stock."
    And Mr. M. C. Edwards says: "Of course, all the once created species were not there (in the ark), but certain representatives species found in that part of the globe were there with potentialities that were almost infinite. Take the classic case that Darwin quotes - the pigeon. He found that if the almost endless varieties of pigeons were allowed to breed together, they went back to the rock pigeon; therefore, if there were seven rock pigeons in the ark, there were thousands of varieties potentially preserved. The same may be said about others, e.g., the dog."
    The term species may be defined as a group of individuals of animals or plants which breed together freely and reproduce fertile offspring. It is known that species of the same genus are occasionally interfertile and, therefore, might have required only one pair to represent them in the ark. The same applies, for instance, to the cat genus with its many species (lions, tigers, panthers, leopards, etc.), to the numerous varieties and breeds of the dog family, etc. All horses, whether Shetland ponies, racers, or heavy draft horses, form one species and may have descended from a common ancestor. Likewise, a single pair of cattle may have represented the entire bovine family. Not every variety of this large group need to have been in the ark. A representative was sufficient to supply the great number of varieties of forms found on the earth day.
    That this kind of argumentation is not unreasonable nor impossible can also be shown from the example of the human race. The entire human race as now existing in the world has descended from Noah and his three sons. Yet we know that mankind is now divided into a great variety of distinct colors and races. We speak of the Caucasian race, the Mongolian race, the Ethiopian race, the red and the brown race. All have come from the same stock, Noah, and yet what a difference in size, color, build, and general appearance. When this change came or what caused the change has remained an anthropological mystery.

    Concerning the difficult question of species Dr. Milton A. Petty of the Department of Plant Pathology, University of Maryland, writes: "The base unit in this natural system of classifying plants and animals is the species. Now this species is not fixed and invariable group as mortal man knows them, but a species is a group of living, or once living, beings delineated by scientific description. They are therefore subject to more or less delineation by man if its status quo is not suitable. A species to a biologist is just a pigeon-hole for a group of beings that may still be a heterogeneous mixture of types. A species is then a concept in the eye of the scientist. Just what a species is in the eyes of the Creator we do not know. We do not know the division lines of 'after their kind.' "
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