Romans Chapter 16

Chapter sixteen ends with the greetings to all in Rome. Paul personally, literally mentions the names of a lot of people (thirty five by name, plus households and families) and, according to the Roman Catholic religion, Peter is supposed to be the Pope, and yet Paul never mentions Peter one time! The reason is simple.
  1. There is no evidence Peter ever went to Rome, recorded or from archaeology, only empty claims
  2. Being the pope there in Rome, he would have left TONS of evidence, and not a little
  3. It is recorded that Peter was crucified upside down in Jerusalem, not Rome
  4. The papacy did not start until the days of Constantine in or around 312 A.D.
  5. The official "Popes List" varies so much that it is useless, and shown to be purposely and nefariously contrived
This chapter reveals the true practice of Christianity in the first century, in the Roman Empire, rarely seen any more. Under deep persecution from Jerusalem outward to the ends of the empire, they endured and bonded together, meeting in houses for prayer, for careful study of the word, for fellowship, to comfort one another and for the breaking of bread. It was a sweet time, practiced on a large scale probably until the reformation, when "the Church" became a large organization, like Roman Catholicism. This chapter leaves from all of the previous chapters of doctrine to practical Christian living, or "Christianity In Action" (C.I.A.), the logical outworking of all that Paul has covered in the first fifteen chapters. This is the last "therefore", there for us to live by, not just believe. They truly did turn the world upside down to the Romans.

(Acts 17:6-Thessalonica)
And when they found them not, they drew Jason and certain brethren unto the rulers of the city, crying, These that have turned the world upside down are come hither also;

  1. Verses three to fifteen Christian helpers in the ministry in Rome are personally greeted
  2. The conduct toward other Christians, verses seventeen through twenty
  3. Sending greetings back, those with Paul, verses twenty one and twenty four
  4. Ending benediction, verses twenty five, twenty seven

(Romans 16:1)
I commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is a servant of the church which is at Cenchrea:
  • To "commend" here in context simply means to commit, to entrust or give in charge.
  • Phoebe was a praying woman, a worker bee in the hive there
  • Her name was named for Phebe, also known as Artemis or Diana, goddess of the moon, brother to Apollo, god of the sun, a common practice. This means she was a gentile, a Greek name, who may have even later changed her name once she was saved, a common practice
  • It seems as though all of these people listed in chapter sixteen were helpers to Paul in his work

(Romans 16:2)
That ye receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of you: for she hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also.
  • The use of the phrase "in the LORD" is used six times here in chapter sixteen, the only epistle to even use the phrase, and only twice in Acts concerning Paul
  • Receiving someone who is a brother or sister in the LORD is something that becomes us, is suitable, apt
  • She was a prayer warrior, working but in need of help, and that is normal, expected
  • To "succour" means to help, aid, assist
  • According to ancient testimony, Phebe would have been the one to carry this letter, this vital epistle, the first one in our Scriptures, from Corinth (most likely) to Rome itself.
  • They actually had a postal system for delivery of letters on foot or hoof, called the "pursus publicus", which was a state run courier (getting paid taxes were important!) and transportation system, however, this was too personal and important, needing to make it safely, without interruption, to the saints at Rome
(Romans 16:3)
Greet Priscilla and Aquila my helpers in Christ Jesus:
  • Constant helpers of Paul, Priscila and Aquila were a prominent Christian couple in Acts, mentioned in Paul's epistles also

Priscilla and Aquila

  • Aquila was known to be a Jew, presumably Priscilla was also
  • They accompanied Paul on missionary trips
  • They taught a man named Apollos, who was knowledgeable in the Scriptures
  • They had a home church
(Acts 18:2)
And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them.

(Acts 18:18)
And Paul after this tarried there yet a good while, and then took his leave of the brethren, and sailed thence into Syria, and with him Priscilla and Aquila; having shorn his head in Cenchrea: for he had a vow.

(Acts 18:26)
And he began to speak boldly in the synagogue: whom when Aquila and Priscilla had heard, they took him unto them, and expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly.

(1 Corinthians 16:19)
The churches of Asia salute you. Aquila and Priscilla salute you much in the Lord, with the church that is in their house.

(2 Timothy 4:19)
Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus.

(Romans 16:4)
Who have for my life laid down their own necks: unto whom not only I give thanks, but also all the churches of the Gentiles.
  • However they did it, they were willing to be martyrs for Christ in order to get Paul off, or simply they knowingly accompanied him into deadly situations
  • Either way they were faithful to Paul and to the LORD Jesus Christ
  • This was the case for many others who they served with, this laying down their lives for all
  • The persecution of Jews and Christians in Rome would have meant that they had to leave, to go to Corinth, then Ephesus (1 Corinthians 16:9, Acts 18:26)

(Romans 16:5)
Likewise greet the church that is in their house. Salute my wellbeloved Epaenetus, who is the firstfruits of Achaia unto Christ.
  • This is a home church, and is now prevalent worldwide today, and will be so soon here in the United States
  • The Church as the body of Christ started out iin homes, and will return there every time there is a persecution and resultant revival.
  • The Church is the people, not the building. We are not called to "go to Church", we are called to "be the church"
  • God never intended for mankind to have denominations, organizations, etc.
  • There are no denominations at all in Scripture, they are called "Christians and "members of that way"

(Acts 19:9)
But when divers were hardened, and believed not, but spake evil of that way before the multitude, he departed from them, and separated the disciples, disputing daily in the school of one Tyrannus.

(Acts 19:23)
And the same time there arose no small stir about that way.

(Acts 24:22)
And when Felix heard these things, having more perfect knowledge of that way, he deferred them, and said, When Lysias the chief captain shall come down, I will know the uttermost of your matter.

(Acts 11:26)
And when he had found him, he brought him unto Antioch. And it came to pass, that a whole year they assembled themselves with the church, and taught much people. And the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch.

(Acts 26:28)
Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian.

(1 Peter 4:16)
Yet if any man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; but let him glorify God on this behalf.

(Romans 16:6)
Greet Mary, who bestowed much labour on us.
  • Mary is a Jewish name which means "Rebellion, overthrow."
  • That said, once she got saved, she was a changed woman, serving a new Master
  • In other words, she no longer was rebellious against her Creator God

(Romans 16:7)
Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen, and my fellowprisoners, who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me.
  • Greek (Andronicus) means "victory" and Roman name (Junia) meaning "belonging to Juno the Greek god"
  • The gift of apostle was still prevalent, and Paul calls them both by that name, and mentions they were saved previous to his own conversion
  • They were Jews also, and apparently spent time in prison with Paul

(Romans 16:8)
Greet Amplias my beloved in the Lord.
  • Amplias is a common slave name, found in the catacombs in a place of honor, and means "large"

(Romans 16:9)
Salute Urbane, our helper in Christ, and Stachys my beloved.
  • Urbane means "Of the city, or city bred courteous" or, as we say today, "City Slicker"
  • Stachys in Latin means "spike, ear of corn", a name found in royal homes

(Romans 16:10)
Salute Apelles approved in Christ. Salute them which are of Aristobulus' household.
  • Apelles common Jewish or Greek name then, meaning "called"
  • Aristobulus may have been the grandson of Herod the Great

(Romans 16:11)
Salute Herodion my kinsman. Greet them that be of the household of Narcissus, which are in the Lord.
  • Herodion was probably a fellow Jew with Paul, ("my kinsman"), and the name means "heroic"
  • Probably also a slave of Herod's house, taking the house name of the master of the house
  • Narcissus was a free man's name, not a slave name anyways, and means "stupidity, numbness", so today we say, "numbskull"!

(Romans 16:12)
Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord. Salute the beloved Persis, which laboured much in the Lord.
  • Tryphena means "delicate, shining"and Tryphosa means "thrice shining", both females
  • Persis is simply a "Persian woman", a free woman
  • Persis "laboured much" in the LORD, apparently significantly enough to get that mention

(Romans 16:13)
Salute Rufus chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine.
  • Rufus means "red haired"
  • His mother apparently was an amazingly strong spiritual woman, as Paul considered him a "spiritual mother"

(Romans 16:14)
Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren which are with them.
  • Asyncritus ="incomparable"
  • Hermas is named after Mercury(Roman), or "Hermes"(Greek)
  • Phlegon="Zealous, burning"
  • Patrobas="Following in the steps of one's father"
  • Hermes="cairn (a monument of stones), a pile of stones, a boundary marker such as a stone wall, etc."

(Romans 16:15)
Salute Philologus, and Julia, Nereus, and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints which are with them.
  • Philologus="Lover of letters; lover of the Word"
  • Julia="Young, and is short for 'Julius'"
  • Nereus="Father of the Nereids", Greek nymphs of "The Old Man of the sea"
  • Olympus="Heavenly"

(Romans 16:16)
Salute one another with an holy kiss. The churches of Christ salute you.
  • This would probably be both a hug, embrace and perhaps a kiss on the cheek, but it is uncertain
  • This was more of a custom than a command in Scripture
  • Paul then lastly sends greetings back at them

(Romans 16:17)
Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them.
  • The most important words here are "contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned"
  • the most misused part of the verse is "mark them which cause divisions and offences"..............and they do not complete the verse about the doctrine
  • The avoidance is literally to have division with those with the false doctrines, which divides people
  • This is not a contradiction, because of the "contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned" part, because these people are already dividing with false doctrine, so this is to "stop the bleeding", as they say

(Romans 16:18)
For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.
  • These are the same sort who "make merchandise of you"
  • By serving one's belly, that means food, which means a personal gain of money

(2 Peter 2:1-3)
But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction. And many shall follow their pernicious ways; by reason of whom the way of truth shall be evil spoken of. And through covetousness shall they with feigned words make merchandise of you: whose judgment now of a long time lingereth not, and their damnation slumbereth not.

(Romans 16:19)
For your obedience is come abroad unto all men. I am glad therefore on your behalf: but yet I would have you wise unto that which is good, and simple concerning evil.
  • Their reputation had spread, because of the persecution, coming with the dispersia
  • Paul wants them further to have discernment, which is only achieved with knowing God's Word.
  • Worldly wisdom, also known as "street smarts" is not suitable for God's morals, or God's people
  • That obedience can be stunted by false doctrines
(1 Corinthians 1:17-20)
For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect. For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it is the power of God. For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent. Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.

(Romans 16:20)
And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.
  • This is going to happen shortly, and soon
  • Because God does not dwell in time, this has already happened, and we are just awaiting it. To God a thousand years or six thousand years is nothing but a split second
SHORT'LY, adv.
  1. Quickly; soon; in a little time.
    The armies came shortly in view of each other. Clarendon.
  2. In a few words; briefly; as, to express ideas more shortly in verse than in prose.

(Romans 16:21)
Timotheus my workfellow, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you.
  • Timotheus is the Greek for Timothy was ever with Paul on his missionary trips and means "To Honour God"
  • Lucias means "bringer of light", a lot like Lucifer, only now saved!
  • Jason: "A healing". In Greek mythology, Jason was the leader of the group of warrior heroes called the Argonauts, hence "Jason and the Argonauts".
  • Sosipater means "who defends the father"

(Romans 16:22)
I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord.
  • Paul had a secretary who did the actual recording
  • Tertius is a Latin name, and simply means "third child"

(Romans 16:23)
Gaius mine host, and of the whole church, saluteth you. Erastus the chamberlain of the city saluteth you, and Quartus a brother.
  • Gaius is a Greek name that means "to be joyful", now fulfilled in them literally, as being saved
  • Erastus means "to be loving" ,and he was the official of the king, even until today in England
  • Quartus is just Latin for being "the fourth born child"

(Romans 16:24)
The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.
  • Grace is all we have to live on, allows us to be saved, allows us to obey,

(Romans 16:25)
Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began,
  • The only reason that Paul can call this his Gospel is that it is the same Gospel as the LORD Jesus Christ Himself.....otherwise, it would be "another gospel"
  • The Gospel was hidden in plain sight in the Old Testament, and only the eyes of faith ever saw it
  • It was partially concealed, partially revealed, the Messiah prophecies being accepted, the Suffering Messiah being rejected as a little bit too untidy, unclean, not kosher
  • The reason, as stated throughout Romans, is that pride makes us not want to think we are sinners, not needing salvation, and makes us practice works as a religion to save ourselves, and impossible task

(Galatians 1:6-8)
I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel: Which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ. But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed.

(Romans 16:26)
But now is made manifest, and by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations for the obedience of faith:
  • Again, the obedience is at the forefront
(John 10:14)
I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known of mine.

(John 10:27)
My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:

(Romans 16:27)
To God only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ for ever. Amen.
  • The end of the entire story. All is to God's Glory and what Paul has said the entire sixteen chapters