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Romans Chapter 1

(Hebrews 1:2)
Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

Throughout scripture, God revealed Himself and His doctrine, His Righteousness, and His holiness in many ways-from the Law, from history, from wisdom, from poetry, down through all of the prophets, but now in the New Testament will reveal Himself in a new way, through the Gospel through His apostles and disciples, using their epistles. This entire epistle is all about the Righteousness of God. All epistles by the apostles and disciples were personal, handwritten letters delivered to the receiving churches by hand, making them all very personal in nature.

Paul the apostle says things about himself and about the churches in every epistle, in this case the church at Rome, which was largely composed of Gentiles. Paul was "the apostle to the Gentiles", or "the uncircumcision"- see Romans 11:13, and not just the Jews. Paul was a Roman citizen and he was the transition from Jew to Gentile. Peter was the apostle to the Jews, "the circumcision". Just like the book of Acts does, in Romans, Paul transitioned from Jew to Gentile because of the Jews rejection of the Gospel. Paul did indeed found the church (not another man's foundation-chapter 15) at Rome; he wrote to them to introduce the Gospel, and then later visited them. No one had been to Rome as yet.

A characteristic of an apostle was to have personally seen the Risen LORD (Acts 9:3, 1 Corinthians 15:8):

(Acts 9:3)
And as he journeyed, he came near Damascus: and suddenly there shined round about him a light from heaven:

(1 Corinthians 15:8)
And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time.

Owing to the fact that God can use anyone He chooses to, Peter (a mere, unpolished, rough, cursing fisherman) was the apostle to the Jews-while Paul (a polished, educated, Pharisee, the Son of a Pharisee) was the apostle to the Gentiles!

(Acts 13:46)
Then Paul and Barnabas waxed bold, and said, It was necessary that the word of God should first have been spoken to you: but seeing ye put it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, lo, we turn to the Gentiles.

(Acts 18:6)
And when they opposed themselves, and blasphemed, he shook his raiment, and said unto them, Your blood be upon your own heads; I am clean: from henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles.

(Romans 15:15-16)
Nevertheless, brethren, I have written the more boldly unto you in some sort, as putting you in mind, because of the grace that is given to me of God, That I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Ghost.

Paul was apparently well known in Rome, from the first few verses of Acts chapter 18 with Priscilla and Aquila. They then later worked together, and Paul salutes them here in his epistle to Rome.

(Acts 23:26-27)
Claudius Lysias unto the most excellent governor Felix sendeth greeting. This man was taken of the Jews, and should have been killed of them: then came I with an army, and rescued him, having understood that he was a Roman.

(Acts 18:1-3)
After these things Paul departed from Athens, and came to Corinth; And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them. And because he was of the same craft, he abode with them, and wrought: for by their occupation they were tentmakers.

(Romans 16:3)
Greet Priscilla and Aquila my helpers in Christ Jesus:

(1 Corinthians 16:19)
The churches of Asia salute you. Aquila and Priscilla salute you much in the Lord, with the church that is in their house.

The first eight chapters are all a simple, doctrinal explanation of the Gospel, using repetition of various basic concepts of the Law, Grace, death, life, faith, justification, the flesh and the spirit, the problem of sin and the solution to it, differences between and common concepts of the Jew and the Gentile (the circumcision and the uncircumcision), Old Testament and New Testament, etc.

Chapters nine through eleven concentrate on the nation of Israel.

From chapters twelve through sixteen, it changes to, "Now what? What do we do now that we know all of this?"

There is an old saying, "All roads lead to Rome". That was no accident.

(Galatians 2:8-9)
(For he that wrought effectually in Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, the same was mighty in me toward the Gentiles:) And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision.

Romans is a book of contrasts in many ways, in many chapters, repeated often:

  1. The flesh vs. the spirit
  2. Life vs. death
  3. Good fruit vs. bad fruit
  4. Israel vs. the Gentiles
  5. Works vs. faith
  6. Works vs. grace
  7. The Law vs. faith
  8. The Law vs. grace
  9. Circumcision vs. uncircumcision
  10. Circumcision of the flesh vs. circumcision of the heart
  11. Righteousness vs. unrighteousness
  12. Jewishness inwardly vs. Jewishness outwardly
  13. Belief vs. unbelief
  14. Jews vs. Gentiles
  15. Servants of sin vs. servants of righteousness
  16. Good fruit vs. bad fruit
  17. Good branches vs. bad branches
  18. Wages of sin vs. gift of God
  19. Oldness of the letter of the Law vs. newness of the Spirit
  20. Godly vs. ungodly
  21. Freedom vs. servanthood
  22. Obedience vs. disobedience
  23. Sin vs. grace
  24. Righteousness vs. death
  25. Old man vs. new creature
  26. Dead to sin vs. alive to God
  27. Sin unto death vs. obedience unto righteousness
  28. Wages of sin vs. gift of God
  29. Oldness of the letter vs. newness of the spirit
  30. To do good vs. to do evil
  31. Walking after the flesh vs. walking after the Spirit
  32. Minding the things of the flesh vs. minding the things of the Spirit
  33. Law of the Spirit of Jesus Christ vs. the Law of sin vs. death
  34. Carnally minded spiritually minded
  35. Death and warfare, enmity against God vs. life and peace with God
  36. The things of the flesh vs. the things of the Spirit
  37. In the flesh vs. in the Spirit
  38. Living after the flesh and dying, vs. living through the Spirit, mortifying the flesh and living
  39. Spirit of bondage and fear vs. Spirit of adoption
  40. Of the flesh vs. of the Spirit
  41. The child of the flesh vs. the child of the promise
  42. Children of the flesh vs. children of God
  43. Following after righteousness which is of faith vs. following after unrighteousness which is of the law
  44. Israel's own (un)righteousness vs. the righteousness of God
  45. Righteousness which is of the Law vs. the righteousness which is by faith
  46. Branches broken off vs. branches grafted in
  47. Natural branches vs. wild branches
  48. Conforming to the world vs. transforming one's mind
  49. Thinking highly of oneself or thinking soberly of oneself
  50. Avenging ourselves vs. letting God avenge for us
  51. Being overcome with evil vs. overcoming evil with good
  52. Works of darkness vs. armour of light
  53. Walking honestly as in the day vs. walking in rioting and drunkenness, chambering and wantonness, strife and envying
  54. Of faith vs. if sin

ROME: Paul appears to be the one who founded the church at Rome via this letter. It was the principal city of the empire, and none of the other apostles had gone there.

(Romans 1:1)
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,
  • Paul gives himself no title, like "THE Apostle Paul, Yes that Paul!". He's just "Paul", a servant first, an apostle after that.
  • He is "a servant", named Paul, saved and volunteering for service in the LORD'S army
  • He is humbly called to be an apostle, and his job is to give the gospel to all-to the Jews first, and then to the Gentiles
  • Paul was "called to be an apostle" on the Damascus Road
  • When called, he first asked Jesus who He was, and then what did He want Paul to do?
  • This is one thing the LORD called him to do, be an apostle, be an apostle and a witness to the Jew first, and then to the Gentiles, go to Rome
  • Those called by God serve God.....those not called, or self-called, serve themselves
  • Separated unto (simply means "separated to"), or "separated to the Gospel of God", which means it is not a manmade idea at all
  • He was not separated "from" anything, but rather "to" Jesus Christ, so he was not legalistic. He was a FORMER Pharisee, because our past history is not important to God, only our future work for Him
(Acts 9:5-6)
And he said, Who art thou, Lord? And the Lord said, I am Jesus whom thou persecutest: it is hard for thee to kick against the pricks. And he trembling and astonished said, Lord, what wilt thou have me to do? And the Lord said unto him, Arise, and go into the city, and it shall be told thee what thou must do.

(Acts 19:21)
After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome.

(Romans 1:2)
(Which he had promised afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures,)
  • Again, this was not a new invention of men, but a promise of God through the entire Old Testament
  • The Gospel was promised from Genesis to Malachi, spread throughout every one of the very pages of Scripture
  • A prophet was anyone from Moses to Jacob, to any person who God chose, not just an "official prophet"
(Romans 1:3)
Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;
  • In the personal fleshly realm, Jesus is a direct descendant of King David and, as such, is the rightful heir to the Throne of David
  • The title given here is the full one, God's Son
  • His "humanity", or manhood

The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.
Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob begat Judas and his brethren;
And Judas begat Phares and Zara of Thamar; and Phares begat Esrom; and Esrom begat Aram; (Matthew 1:4)
And Aram begat Aminadab; and Aminadab begat Naasson; and Naasson begat Salmon;
And Salmon begat Booz of Rachab; and Booz begat Obed of Ruth; and Obed begat Jesse;
And Jesse begat David the king; and David the king begat Solomon of her that had been the wife of Urias;
And Solomon begat Roboam; and Roboam begat Abia; and Abia begat Asa;
And Asa begat Josaphat; and Josaphat begat Joram; and Joram begat Ozias;
And Ozias begat Joatham; and Joatham begat Achaz; and Achaz begat Ezekias; And Ezekias begat Manasses;
and Manasses begat Amon; and Amon begat Josias; And Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren, about the time they were carried away to Babylon:
And after they were brought to Babylon, Jechonias begat Salathiel; and Salathiel begat Zorobabel; And Zorobabel begat Abiud;
and Abiud begat Eliakim; and Eliakim begat Azor; And Azor begat Sadoc; and Sadoc begat Achim;
and Achim begat Eliud; And Eliud begat Eleazar; and Eleazar begat Matthan;
and Matthan begat Jacob; And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ.

(Romans 1:4)
And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:
  • According to the Spirit, He is the Son of God, a title of deity
  • His "godhood"
  • The power was clearly manifested and therefore proven beyond doubt before all seeing and unseeing eyes in miracles, signs, wonders, His Blameless Holiness, His Resurrection

(Daniel 3:25)
He answered and said, Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the form of the fourth is like the Son of God.

(Matthew 26:63)
But Jesus held his peace. And the high priest answered and said unto him, I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God.

(Romans 1:5)
By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name:
  • This is the calling of all of the apostles, earlier for Paul to the Jews, now for Paul to the Gentiles
  • Jesus Christ calls any one of us-we do not call ourselves
  • The purpose is for obedience to God's Will, not to continue in our own will
  • It is not for anyone else's Name, since no other name saves

(Acts 3:16)
And his name through faith in his name hath made this man strong, whom ye see and know: yea, the faith which is by him hath given him this perfect soundness in the presence of you all.

(Romans 1:6)
Among whom are ye also the called of Jesus Christ:
  • Like they were called, so are we called, for obedience to the faith, for all peoples, for His Name and for His Glory
  • "Among whom" means we are not alone, not the only ones called, and are on a team, different members of the same body

(Romans 1:7)
To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.
  • The audience for the handwritten letter is revealed, the head of the empire
  • Either there were saved saints there, or Paul knew there would be saved saints there
  • While God love the World enough to send His Son, only those who are God's are beloved of God; all others who do not believe are not beloved of God

BELOV'ED, ppr. [be and loved, from love. Belove, as a verb, is not used.]
  Loved; greatly loved; dear to the heart.

(Romans 1:8)
First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world.
  • The first thing to notice is that Paul thanks God, not them, not the Romans, even though he is thankful for them

Thankful Paul the Apostle

  • Paul was thankful in his words and epistles over forty five times in Scripture
  • Paul regularly, traditionally, customarily, habitually thanked God for everything
  • He often thanked God "through Jesus Christ" in his salutations
  • He rarely thanked people in his writings/epistles, but did a few times
  • He often encouraged others to be thankful to God and the LORD Jesus Christ, have thanksgiving in a thankful heart
  • Paul was literally the only apostle in Acts to be recorded for his thankfulness (Acts 27:35)
  • This is not to say that all of the others were not thankful, as it is certain that they were, but for him it may have been a personal reflex action
(Acts 27:35)
And when he had thus spoken, he took bread, and gave thanks to God in presence of them all: and when he had broken it, he began to eat.

(Romans 1:8)
First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world.

(Romans 6:17)
But God be thanked, that ye were the servants of sin, but ye have obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine which was delivered you.

(Romans 7:25)
I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind I myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin.

(Romans 14:6)
He that regardeth the day, regardeth it unto the Lord; and he that regardeth not the day, to the Lord he doth not regard it. He that eateth, eateth to the Lord, for he giveth God thanks; and he that eateth not, to the Lord he eateth not, and giveth God thanks.

(Romans 16:4)
Who have for my life laid down their own necks: unto whom not only I give thanks, but also all the churches of the Gentiles.

(1 Corinthians 1:4)
I thank my God always on your behalf, for the grace of God which is given you by Jesus Christ;

(1 Corinthians 1:14)
I thank God that I baptized none of you, but Crispus and Gaius;

(1 Corinthians 10:30)
For if I by grace be a partaker, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks?

(1 Corinthians 11:24)
And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me.

(1 Corinthians 14:16)
Else when thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he that occupieth the room of the unlearned say Amen at thy giving of thanks, seeing he understandeth not what thou sayest?

(1 Corinthians 14:17)
For thou verily givest thanks well, but the other is not edified.

(1 Corinthians 14:18)
I thank my God, I speak with tongues more than ye all:

(1 Corinthians 15:57)
But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.

(2 Corinthians 1:11)
Ye also helping together by prayer for us, that for the gift bestowed upon us by the means of many persons thanks may be given by many on our behalf.

(2 Corinthians 2:14)
Now thanks be unto God, which always causeth us to triumph in Christ, and maketh manifest the savour of his knowledge by us in every place.

(2 Corinthians 4:15)
For all things are for your sakes, that the abundant grace might through the thanksgiving of many redound to the glory of God.

(2 Corinthians 8:16)
But thanks be to God, which put the same earnest care into the heart of Titus for you.

(2 Corinthians 9:11)
Being enriched in every thing to all bountifulness, which causeth through us thanksgiving to God.

(2 Corinthians 9:12)
For the administration of this service not only supplieth the want of the saints, but is abundant also by many thanksgivings unto God;

(2 Corinthians 9:15)
Thanks be unto God for his unspeakable gift.

(Ephesians 1:16)
Cease not to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers;

(Ephesians 5:4)
Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient: but rather giving of thanks.

(Ephesians 5:20)
Giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ;

(Philippians 1:3)
I thank my God upon every remembrance of you,

(Philippians 4:6)
Be careful for nothing; but in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God.

(Colossians 1:3)
We give thanks to God and the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always for you,

(Colossians 1:12)
Giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light:

(Colossians 2:7)
Rooted and built up in him, and stablished in the faith, as ye have been taught, abounding therein with thanksgiving.

(Colossians 3:15)
And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to the which also ye are called in one body; and be ye thankful.

(Colossians 3:17)
And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him.

(Colossians 4:2)
Continue in prayer, and watch in the same with thanksgiving;

(1 Thessalonians 1:2)
We give thanks to God always for you all, making mention of you in our prayers;

(1 Thessalonians 2:13)
For this cause also thank we God without ceasing, because, when ye received the word of God which ye heard of us, ye received it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that believe.

(1 Thessalonians 3:9)
For what thanks can we render to God again for you, for all the joy wherewith we joy for your sakes before our God;

(1 Thessalonians 5:18)
In every thing give thanks: for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus concerning you.

(2 Thessalonians 1:3)
We are bound to thank God always for you, brethren, as it is meet, because that your faith groweth exceedingly, and the charity of every one of you all toward each other aboundeth;

(2 Thessalonians 2:13)
But we are bound to give thanks alway to God for you, brethren beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth:

(1 Timothy 1:12)
And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath enabled me, for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry;

(1 Timothy 2:1)
I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men;

(1 Timothy 4:3)
Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth.

(1 Timothy 4:4)
For every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving:

(2 Timothy 1:3)
I thank God, whom I serve from my forefathers with pure conscience, that without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day;

(2 Timothy 3:2)
For men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy,

(Philemon 1:4)
I thank my God, making mention of thee always in my prayers,

(Hebrews 13:15)
By him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips giving thanks to his name.

(Romans 1:9)
For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers;
  • "Pray without ceasing" is another characteristic and admonition of Paul's
  • Paul giving the admonition to do this and doing it himself means he is not a hypocrite with a double standard

(1 Thessalonians 5:17)
Pray without ceasing.

(Romans 1:10)
Making request, if by any means now at length I might have a prosperous journey by the will of God to come unto you.
  • It is an intercessory prayer here, for them. He wants to visit them and have fellowship
  • Paul also affirms that it is only the will of God which can get him there, prosper in his ministry and prosper his ministry with them

(Romans 1:11)
For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual gift, to the end ye may be established;
  • He has not been there yet, but wants to be
  • He is not the one who gives gifts; that is the job of the Holy Ghost
  • Paul merely wants to use his gift to bless them and this is where the context of any verse determines the meaning of that verse

(1 Corinthians 12:4-11)
Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit. And there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord.

(1 Corinthians 12:6)
And there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal.
For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit; To another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit; To another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits; to another divers kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues: But all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will.

(Romans 1:12)
That is, that I may be comforted together with you by the mutual faith both of you and me.
  • Mutual faith means in Jesus Christ
  • The comfort comes from knowing someone believes in the LORD Jesus Christ, as a brother or sister in Christ
  • "Comforted together' is also mutual comfort, so that makes mutual comfort, mutual faith

(Romans 1:13)
Now I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that oftentimes I purposed to come unto you, (but was let hitherto,) that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles.
  • "I would not have you ignorant" as in, "I want you to know"
  • Either this fruit was his to share, or theirs for him to witness in themselves, or both
  • The Holy Ghost or the enemy prevented him from visiting them, until the opportune time

LET, v.t. pret. and pp. let. Letted is obsolete. [To let out, like L. elocare, is to lease.]

  1. To permit; to allow; to suffer; to give leave or power by a positive act, or negatively, to withhold restraint; not to prevent.
    A leaky ship lets water enter into the hold. Let is followed by the infinitive without the sign to. Pharaoh said, I will let you go. Exo 8. When the ship was caught and could not bear up into the wind, we let her drive. Acts 27.
  2. To lease; to grant possession and use for a compensation; as, to let to farm; to let an estate for a year; to let a room to lodgers; often followed by out, as, to let out a farm; but the use of out is unnecessary.
  3. To suffer; to permit; with the usual sign of the infinitive.
    There's a letter for you, Sir, if your name be Horatio, as I am let to know it is. [Not used.]
  4. In the imperative mode, let has the following uses. Followed by the first and third persons, it expresses desire or wish; hence it is used in prayer and entreaty to superiors, and to those who have us in their power; as, let me not wander from thy commandments. Psa 119.
    Followed by the first person plural, let expresses exhortation or entreaty; as, rise, let us go. Followed by the third person, it implies permission or command addressed to an inferior.
    Let him go, let them remain, are commands addressed to the second person. Let thou, or let ye, that is, do thou or you permit him to go. Sometimes let is used to express a command or injunction to a third person. When the signal is given to engage, let every man do his duty.
    When applied to things not rational, it implies allowance or concession. O'er golden sands let rich Pactolus flow.
  5. To retard; to hinder; to impede; to interpose obstructions. 2 Th 2. [This sense is now obsolete, or nearly so.] To let alone, to leave; to suffer to remain without intermeddling; as, let alone this idle project; let me alone. To let down, to permit to sink or fall; to lower.
    She let them down by a cord through the window. Josh 2.
    To let loose, to free from restraint; to permit to wander at large.
    To let in or into, to permit or suffer to enter; to admit. Open the door, let in my friend. We are not let into the secrets of the cabinet. To let blood, to open a vein and suffer the blood to flow out.
    To let out, to suffer to escape; also, to lease or let to hire.
    To let off, to discharge, to let fly, as an arrow; or cause to explode, as a gun.
LET, v.i. To forbear. Obs.
LET, n. A retarding; hinderance; obstacle; impediment; delay. [Obsolete, unless in some technical phrases.]
LET, a termination of diminutives; as hamlet, a little house; rivulet, a small stream. [See Little.]

(1 Thessalonians 2:18)
Wherefore we would have come unto you, even I Paul, once and again; but Satan hindered us.

(Romans 15:22)
For which cause also I have been much hindered from coming to you.

(Romans 1:14)
I am debtor both to the Greeks, and to the Barbarians; both to the wise, and to the unwise.
  • One of two consecutive uses of the phrase "I am", here and verse 15
  • The Greeks were the same as the Romans here, speaking from the empire perspective
  • A Barbarian here simply means a foreigner, as in foreign from the Roman Empire
  • So this really means a Roman and a metropolitan, Roman citizen who is civilized, versus a Roman foreigner who is maybe not as civilized, and conquered

BARBA'RIAN, n. [L. barbarus;. The sense is, foreign, wild, fierce.]

  1. A man in his rude, savage state; an uncivilized person.
  2. A cruel, savage, brutal man; one destitute of pity or humanity.
  3. A foreigner. The Greeks and Romans denominated most foreign nations barbarians; and many of these were less civilized than themselves, or unacquainted with their language, laws and manners. But with them,the word was less reproachful than with us.
BARBA'RIAN a. Belonging to savages; rude; uncivilized.,
  1. Cruel; inhuman.

(Romans 1:15)
So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rome also.
  • This "as much as in me is" is just ministry from the heart, all of the heart and nothing but the heart
  • The Gospel here is a combination of two words, "God" + "Spell", as in God's Word, because he was writing to them indicating that many were saved, throughout the epistle, so just preaching the Gospel would not be necessary to all of the Roman church.
  • To others unsaved there, (many), it WAS indeed and in fact the Gospel of the LORD Jesus Christ

(Romans 1:16)
For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.
  • Two "I am"s and now what "I am not"
  • To the Jew first is how it was offered, the order
  • The Gentile ministry was started after, mainly through Paul and Silas (Acts 15-end)

(Romans 1:17)
For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith.
  • God's righteousness is revealed in faith and belief of the Gospel, to Heaven, or rejection of it, to hell
  • This again starts the repetition of the explanation of the facts of the Gospel of salvation, reconciliation and justification, coming throughout this entire epistle
  • This verse is part of the 95 theses that Martin Luther nailed onto the door of the Monastery at Wittenberg Germany October 31, 1517.
  • This comes from Habakkuk 2:4 and is quoted by Paul in Galatians and Hebrews also

(Habakkuk 2:4)
Behold, his soul which is lifted up is not upright in him: but the just shall live by his faith.

(Galatians 3:11)
But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith.

(Hebrews 10:38)
Now the just shall live by faith: but if any man draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him.

(Romans 1:18)
For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness;
  • The Gospel, in saying that man deserves death, is started with the Fall, the first command and the first disobedience.
  • Since then, mankind, in his flesh, has only shown that God was correct in condemning the first couple as unrighteous without Him
  • This is not just anger, but the righteous wrath and indignation of judgment in hell and the eventual (soon) destruction of earth in Revelation
  • They suppress the truth, by burning Scriptures, destroying Christian literature, oppressing Christians in the public arena, persecuting Christians

(Romans 1:19)
Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them.
  • The reason is because man denies God, as atheists, evolutionists, ungodly, immoral
  • What "that which may be known" here is that He is, Who He is and what He did for us
  • It is internal to all mankind that God takes false, pagan indoctrination to get one to disbelieve in God, from an early age
  • That said, that does not mean they want to seek The One True God, but a god of their own choosing, as God has to draw them to Himself and they must respond in faith

(Romans 1:20)
For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:
  • Those invisible things are elements, microscopic organisms, atoms, the spiritual, angelic realm
  • The miracles are also invisible to the unbeliever, and yet clearly seen
  • The Flood is past history, unseen to us as an event, yet clearly seen in the fossil record

(2 Peter 3:10)
But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up.

(2 Peter 3:12)
Looking for and hasting unto the coming of the day of God, wherein the heavens being on fire shall be dissolved, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat?

(Romans 1:21)
Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
  • Seeing God in Creation, and then with a true heart of belief seeing God the Son as one's Savior is a choice which leads to two different heart conditions-either thanksfulness or thanklessness
  • Glorifying God the Creator as God, as opposed to glorifying anything else in God's creation as God, glorifying God as something other than God (a god or gods), glorifying man as God

(Romans 1:22)
Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,
  • People worship their intellect
  • Today, "Only smart people know belief in God is for dummies!"
  • Today, "Only dumb people believe in God!!"
  • Those who reject God and worship the intellect, the "science" will call anyone who believes in Creation "anti-science!" or "anti-intellectual!" or "anti-knowledge!"
  • The rejection the Creator of the Creation then leads down a logical path here, about to be laid out by Paul. This path is for individuals or for societies
  • Wisdom should never be confused with education, "smarts", "intellect", or the wisdom of this world
  • Fifteen thousand doctor degrees have zero to do with godly wisdom, you can learn a lot of useless material and attain degrees by passing classes

(Romans 1:23)
And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.
  • Uncorruptible because God cannot be touched, seen, let alone destroyed, and this is part of God's Glory, God the Creator is the Only True God!
  • Corruptible is any idol, which can be smashed with a hammer, burned up in a fire, etc.-it is not a true god
  • This happens because man is, even in his own words, "inherently religious", and hides behind that worship by calling it other names that make them appear "intellectual"
  • One's intellect aside, God calls a fool a fool, smart fool or dumb fool-a fool is a fool!

(Romans 1:24)
Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves:
  • God gave them up because they gave him up and they wanted to be given up.
  • This is identical to Pharaoh hardening his heart, and God hardening it (allowing it to harden itself, according to Pharaoh's own wishes that it be hard)
  • This is one and the same action, God and Pharaoh hardening Pharaoh's heart

(Exodus 7:13)
And he (God) hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.

(Exodus 8:15)
But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.

(Romans 1:25)
Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.
  • This "changing the truth of God into a lie" is things like creation into evolution, the flood fossils turned into "proof of evolution", thousands of years turned into "millions and billions of years"
  • The next rung down on the ladder is idolatry, making idols to the creation, like figurines, statues, monuments to people and animals, not for study, but rather for worship

(Romans 1:26)
For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature:
  • The next rung down is strange flesh lust, fornication
  • Giving them up is handing them over to their own desires, lusts, wants
  • Mankind today calls it "alternative" and "marriage"...God calls it "vile affections", "against nature", etc.

(Romans 1:27)
And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet.
  • This goes for both genders, and again God calls it "against nature"


  1. To compensate; to make return of an equivalent for any thing given, done or suffered; as, to recompense a person for services, for fidelity or for sacrifices of time, for loss or damages. The word is followed by the person or the service. We recompense a person for his services, or we recompense his kindness. It is usually found more easy to neglect than to recompense a favor.
  2. To require; to repay; to return an equivalent; in a bad sense.
    Recompense to no man evil for evil. Rom 12.
  3. To make an equivalent return in profit or produce. The labor of man is recompensed by the fruits of the earth.
  4. To compensate; to make amends by any thing equivalent. Solyman - said he would find occasion for them to recompense that disgrace.
  5. To make restitution or an equivalent return for. Num 5.
  1. An equivalent returned for any thing given, done or suffered; compensation; reward; amends; as a recompense for services, for damages, for loss, etc.
  2. Requital; return of evil or suffering or other equivalent; as a punishment.
    To me belongeth vengeance and recompense. Deu 32.
  3. And every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense of reward. Heb 2.

(Romans 1:28)
And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;
  • It is one thing to not know God, or know much about God, but it is quite another to know God and decide to "unknow" (not like to retain) God in one's knowledge
  • Again, same a Pharaoh, God 'gave them over" to "a reprobate mind", which was their mind to start with, by choice
  • "Even as" indicates "BECAUSE", or at the same moment, at the moment of decision

(Romans 1:29)
Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,
  • So we start with everything (all unrighteousness) as a whole, then itemized
  • Fornication: ANY sex outside of the marriage bed, as defined in Genesis 2
  • God uses unrighteousness, then right after that wickedness
  • Covetousness: Strong and unhealthy desire to want things you do not have, lots of them, get them from others, have them pay for them, and not share back
  • Maliciousness: Inner intense hate
  • Filled to the brim with wanting other people's things (envy)
  • Murder in their hearts, sometimes translating to their hands
  • Debate....not for the sake of learning or imparting truth, but because it is coupled with the same heart as the sins listed, just simply to be nasty.
  • Deceit, even when not outright untruth, but untruth mixed in with truth, so as to cause confusion
  • The enemy is the deceiver of all this sin is in cooperation with that enemy, with a handshake and a wicked tongue
  • A whisperer is one who talks about others quietly, secretly, behind their back or reveals secrets told them

(2 John 1:7)
For many deceivers are entered into the world, who confess not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh. This is a deceiver and an antichrist.

MALIG'NITY, n. [L. malignitas.] Extreme enmity, or evil dispositions of heart towards another; malice without provocation, or malevolence with baseness of heart; deep rooted spite.

  1. Virulence; destructive tendency; as the malignity of an ulcer or disease.
  2. Extreme evilness of nature; as the malignity of fraud.
  3. Extreme sinfulness; enormity or heinousness; as the malignity of sin.

(Genesis 2:21-24)
And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh


  1. A strong or inordinate desire of obtaining and possessing some supposed good; usually in a bad sense, and applied to an inordinate desire of wealth or avarice.
    Out of the heart proceedeth covetousness. Mark 7.
    Mortify your members--and covetousness which is idolatry. Col 3.
  2. Strong desire; eagerness.

MALI'CIOUS, a. Harboring ill will or enmity without provocation; malevolent in the extreme; malignant in heart.
I grant him bloody, Sudden, malicious, smacking of every sin That has a name.
  1. Proceeding from extreme hatred or ill will; dictated by malice; as a malicious report.

(Romans 1:30)
Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,
  • Similar to a whisperer, except these people do not care who hears, they vocally slander behind people's back
  • Haters of God......especially the atheists who deny Him

DESPITEFUL, a. Full of spite; malicious; malignant; as a despiteful enemy.
Hater of God, despiteful, proud, boasters. Rom 1.

(Romans 1:31)
Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:
  • the only type of person who would lack spiritual understanding is a person who does not seek God's wisdom by careful study of His Word
  • A covenant breaker is a double-minded, double-tongued and dishonest who will agree if and as long as it suits them only, without regard to anyone else.
  • The natural man is born with a certain amount of affection toward others, such as children, brethren, spouses, etc. As they get older, they suppress that affection, withdraw it
  • An implacable person is never satisfied, not interested in any reconciliation, never appeased
  • Unmerciful people are the exact opposite of a merciful God, and desire to be so

(Romans 1:32)
Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.
  • All people, good or bad, evil, wicked, lost or saved, know in their hearts that God will one day judge them. This verse declares it
  • Therefore, what this means is that they simply do not car.
  • They literally cheer on other people who do this also, championing them, supporting them, cooperating with them, uniting with with them, in joy (have pleasure)

So the order is:
  1. Rejection of the Creator of the Creation (evolutionism, naturalism, etc.) and His Word and words
  2. Worship of one's intellect, one's environment, the world and its system, worship of man-THE CREATION
  3. A heart that is into idolatry, as in idols of animal statues, paintings, sculptures, art, etc. and statues of famous people, buildings erected in their honor, museums and parks to go and worship scientific finds (relics), making "stars" out of famous or popular people, etc.
  4. Such things for the purpose of the study of God's Creation are completely different as opposed to those made for worship of the actual creature-again, a heart issue
  5. Destruction of the created marriage bed of Genesis 1-2
  6. Fornication, homosexuality in both genders
  7. The entire gamut of sins that are listed after in verses 29-31
  8. Supporting and or justifying others who do the same and calling for the "right" to do so, banding together

Does this sound familiar, American?


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