Daniel Chapter 8

The Persian & Greek Empires

The High Priest Jedua showed Alexander this prophetic Daniel chapter 8, written 200 years earlier, which caused him to spare Jerusalem, convinced it spoke of him.

Daniel Chapter 8:  This is part of the image, only Persia and Greece


(Daniel 8:1)
In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared unto me, even unto me Daniel, after that which appeared unto me at the first.
  • The time is when they are still in Babylon.
(Daniel 8:2)
And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.
  • Shushan is in Persia, the capital of the Medo-Persian Empire, Daniel would not even be there, just dreaming and having a vision of and about it.  
  • He was probably there in spirit, like John in Revelation
  • Babylon is still somewhat prominent, because the timing is before chapter 5
  • This is the home of Esther, throughout the book, most chapters (1-9)
    refer to it
  • It is the city of Nehemiah
  • The Code of Hammurabi was found here. It reads like the O.T. laws
  • "Persian kingdom appeared as a ram with clean feet and sharp pointed horns. Also, whenever the Persians went into battle, the Persian king stood at the head of his army wearing the head of a ram on his head instead of a crown."
  • Elam is the place of the Persian Empire, previously named Elam
(Genesis 10:22)
The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.

(Genesis 14:1)
And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations;

(Genesis 14:9)
With Chedorlaomer the king of Elam, and with Tidal king of nations, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; four kings with five.

(Nehemiah 1:1)
The words of Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah. And it came to pass in the month Chisleu, in the twentieth year, as I was in Shushan the palace,

(Daniel 8:3)
Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last.
  • A ram which had two horns?” will be identified later as Media-Persia (see v. 20)
  • In the Zodiac, Aries the Ram is representative of Persia
  • The Persian King also wore a Ram's Headress instead of a Royal Diadem (Crown of Jewels)
  • "Came up last" is referring to Cyrus the Persian who was king of the Medes and Persians after Darius the Mede.
  • "but one was higher than the other" Under him and his successors Persia was a much more powerful kingdom than ever was under the Medes, so the Medo-Persian Empire eventually became the Persian Empire because the Persians were stronger
  • Xerxes was the last King around the time of Esther-unpredictable
  • 480 B.C.: Attacked Greece with 300,000 people-men, women, children-got his clock cleaned
  • Called the Battle of Thermopylae
  • Then attacked with 300 ships, lost them all in a storm
  • When he heard of that, he went down to the sea and beat the waves with his belt!
  • Why the Greeks hated Persians
(Daniel 8:4)
I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great.
  • Not to the East because he is from the East
  • Chapter 7 it was the Bear, now it is the Ram, which is Cyrus of the Persian Empire
  • The Persian Empire was very, very powerful
(Daniel 8:5)
And as I was considering, behold, an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes.

Alexander III of Macedon (July 20th-21st, 356 B.C.– June 10th/11th, 323 B.C.)
  Reigned from 332-323 B.C.

  • This unicorned He Goat is Greece
  • That horn is Alexander the Great Greek Leader, who was actually a Macedonian (a state in Northern Greece, only about twice the size of Massachusettes)
  • Father: Phillip II of Macedon
  • Mother: Olympias-rumored to have had her husband Phillip II assassinated so Alexander could reign.
  • She spread the rumor also that he was the result of her intercourse with a snake.  
  • Took only six years for him to conquer the Persians.
  • Started conquering at 20, died at 32-33
  • 30 years old, made it to India (Punjab)
  • Wanted New World Order, as a ruthless dictator and a visionary
  • With only 35,000 men, against the million man army of the Persians, he prevailed and was then known as "Alexander the Great".
  • This was over many battles, concluding with the Battle of Thermopylae
  • Aristotle taught him until the age of sixteen
  • Alexander was undefeated in all of his battles and wars
  • He had a tactic in war of extremely rapid movement, getting on, taking control, defeating the enemy
  • Alexandria in Egypt named after him, as well as other places
  • Military leaders still teach some of his war tactics and military strategies
  • Alexander spent only twelve years on his conquests, Napolean, three times as long
  • According to historian Diodorus, Alexander was asked on his deathbed to whom he would bequeath or had bequeathed his kingdom; his short and instant reply was "tôi kratistôi", meaning "to the strongest"
  • Died young, in a drunken stupor, walking outside in the cold, got pneumonia, strong, young like verse 8 says
  • Dies in Babylon at 32-33, 323 B.C. in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II, in Babylon,with nothing left to conquer
  • Like all evil dictators, Alexander the Great Shed the blood of millions to exalt himself, whereas...
  • Jesus Christ shed His own Blood Himself to exalt millions of us.
(Daniel 8:6)
And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power.
  • Rams are larger, more powerful
  • Running into it is necessary, plus perfect aim!
  • Ram=Persia=Aries in Zodiac
  • Capricorn=Goat=Greece in Zodiac (Caper=Goat + Cornu=Horn)
  • One Horned Goat=Macedonia, near Greece, not Greece

Alexander versus Persia:

  • May 334 B.C.-crosses Hellespont River with only 30,000 troops
  • November 333 B.C. (1.5 years later)
    engages Persia again at the Battle of Issus
  • October 331 B.C., defeats Persia finally at Arbella, a place near Ninevah (Syria)
  • That is three years to defeat a mighty Empire
  • In Six Years, he conquered everything he could.
Daniel 11 Covers the empires after this, for and in the 400 silent years
(Daniel 8:7)
And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand.
  • Alexander was known for having a fast army, quick decisions
  • This was not typical for army movements to move fast, so it is a surprise
  • His army was much smaller (35,000 Greek soldiers to Xerxes 1,000,000 Persian man army)
  • This was small groups as in and out guerrilla-type warfare
(Daniel 8:8)
Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.
  • Nothing breaks the horn, so he was not killed or conquered
  • Alexandria Egypt is his capital city-name founded by him after he conquered Egypt.
  • Went to Afghanistan, married a woman and had a child
  • He thought that a Macedonian man in his army, Cleitus, who had saved his life in battle, was looking at his wife, so he stabbed him in the back while they were drunk at a huge gala in the palace
  • The quarrel was also about re-arranging generals for troops and Cleitus did not like the change.
  • This made Alexander lose lots of face with his army, but he re-mustered them again to take India.
  • Alexander is at his peak, aged 32-33 (when he was strong)
    he died of a fever after a drinking bout
  • When dying on his deathbed, he was asked what to do with his empire, he said, "Give it to the strong"
  • All three empires (Babylon, Medo-Persian, Greek, all died in a drunken stupor
  • Four Generals divide up empire :
    • 321 B.C. Ptolemy conquers Egypt (the south)
      , North Africa, parts of Asia Minor, Syrian areas
    • In 317 B.C. Cassander too over by assumption as the head of Macedon and takes over Greece (Macedonia, Europe  the west)
      . Brother-in-law to Alexander
    • In 311 B.C. Seleucus took over Babylon and Syria, all of the way to India (the east)
    • In 306 B.C. Antigonus declared himself king of Asia Minor (the north)
      . He was slain in battle in 301 B.C. and was succeeded by Lysimachus. Today this is mostly Turkey.
(Daniel 8:9)
And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.
  • Not the anti-Christ, one of the four generals, Seleucid
  • Seleucid empire wanted to take Israel (the "Pleasant Land")
  • Antiochus IV, Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the Great, (175 B.C.-164 B.C.)
    in 170 B.C. put image of Zeus/Jupiter, sacrificed a pig and boiled it in wine
  • Called himself "Theos Epiphanes"  or "God manifested"
  • Also called himself "Antiochus Epiphanes", "The Illustrious One"
  • The Jews called him "Antiochus Epimanes", "The Madman"
  • He was a Seleucid family member
  • Start of the Maccabean revolt, intense anti-Semitism, intense hatred for the Jews
  • Demanded to be worshipped, statue of himself in Temple
  • 40,000 Jews killed in one day because they refused to worship him
  • Perhaps a million more Jews killed in coming months
  • Scrolls, books, Bibles, burned at his command
  • Butchered pig on altar in Temple, smeared blood all over everywhere
  • Made the High Priest and other priests to drink the blood
  • This is all well documented history, from any good encyclopedia, etc.
(Daniel 8:10)
And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them.
  • This is the Son of Antiochus IV, or Antiochus the Great, part of Syrian, Seleucid Dynasty 175-164 B.C.
  • He was considered worse than Hitler and, by some, is called "Caesar Nero"
  • He does what the anti-Christ will do
  • The Capitals of the Empire
    • Seleucia on the Tigris (305–240 BC)
    • Antioch (240–64 BC)
(Daniel 8:11)
Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.
  • He (Antiochus Epiphanes)
    sent letters to the Jews, recorded in 1 Maccabees 1:41-50
  • Maccabees is not Scripture, but Jewish history
  • He outlawed Judaism 41: Moreover king Antiochus wrote to his whole kingdom, that all should be one people, 42: And every one should leave his laws: so all the heathen agreed according to the commandment of the king. 43: Yea, many also of the Israelites consented to his religion, and sacrificed unto idols, and profaned the sabbath. 44: For the king had sent letters by messengers unto Jerusalem and the cities of Juda that they should follow the strange laws of the land, 45: And forbid burnt offerings, and sacrifice, and drink offerings, in the temple; and that they should profane the sabbaths and festival days: 46: And pollute the sanctuary and holy people: 47: Set up altars, and groves, and chapels of idols, and sacrifice swine's flesh, and unclean beasts: 48: That they should also leave their children uncircumcised, and make their souls abominable with all manner of uncleanness and profanation: 49: To the end they might forget the law, and change all the ordinances. 50: And whosoever would not do according to the commandment of the king, he said, he should die.
(Daniel 8:12)
And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered.
  • This was a God-allowed persecution of Israel by the Pagans
(Daniel 8:13)
Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?
  • This is Antiochus Epiphanes still
  • The "transgression of desolation"  is the "abomination of desolation"
(Daniel 8:14)
And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.
  • Seventh Day Adventism came from this verse precisely as a "Day-Year interpretation"
  • Christ's return was said to be in 1843, after 2,300 YEARS (not days)
  • William Miller (very sincere)
    , his followers, Ellen G. White, came up with this theory and calculated it out
  • 70,000 went up to a mountain in white robes for Christ's return
  • Said it was recalculated, said it happened spiritually in the heavens
  • "Sanctuary that shall be cleansed" was claimed to be the earth
  • Mattathias a man refused to follow Antiochus and was killed.  
    • He had five sons, one of which was called Judas, who was called Maccabeus
    •  This was the Maccabeean Revolt.
  • ROUGHLY 6-7 years, landing around the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, meaning that this was fulfilled by Antiochus Epiphanes, and ended with Judas Maccabees revolt
  • Literal Temple in Jerusalem was literally cleansed and rededicated then
  • Channukah comes from this, they had a "Festival of Lights"
  • Judas Maccabean revolt, revolted, repelled, overthrew Antiochus Epiphanes
  • No oil but for one day for lamps, prayed, eight days
  • Feast of Dedication, Feast of Lights, Channukah 
  • This was 2,300 days exactly to fulfill the prophecy
(Daniel 8:15)
And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man.
  • "Appearance of a man", but apparently not a man.
(Revelation 21:17)
And he measured the wall thereof, an hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of the angel.
(Daniel 8:16)
And I heard a man's voice between the banks of Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.
  • The first introduction to Gabriel in the Bible
(Daniel 8:17)
So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for at the time of the end shall be the vision.
  • This fulfillment is double, and the anti-Christ is typified here.
  • "This is the time of the end", so Antiochus is a picture of the anti-Christ
  • The other little horn at the end of the Gentiles is THE anti-Christ
(Daniel 8:18)
Now as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground: but he touched me, and set me upright.
  • Humility leads to being lifted up
(1 Peter 5:6)
Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time:
(Daniel 8:19-21)
And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end shall be. The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia. And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king.
  • Alexander the Great being the horn
  • The Goat is Greece, the Aegean Sea means "Sea of the Goat"
  • His son was Augus, "Son of the Goat"
  • Alexander shown this saw that he was the goat.
  • In some way this will be related to the anti-Christ kingdom
(Daniel 8:22)
Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.
  • All would be of lesser power than Alexander the Great, none would be able to take over all of it or even conquer more.
  • This four were the  four who fought over his kingdom
  • But this, not being in his power, is the anti-Christ 
  • Lysimachus, Cassander,Ptolemy, and Seleucus--divide the empire after his death just as the passages indicated.2
  • Ptolemy I Soter conquered Egypt, declaring himself to be Pharoah. The Ptolemaic dynasty of rule lasted until 30 B.C.
  • Antipater assumed the government of Macedonia but died soon after. His son Cassander eventually became king (305 B.C.)
  • Seleucus took over Babylon, Persia, Mesopotamia and adjacent areas. He was founder of the Seleucid Empire.
  • Lysimachus ruled over Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedon. 
(Daniel 8:23-25)
And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people.  And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand.
  • This is a world leader
  • Time when the transgressors come to the full
  • His method of destruction of the Holy people, etc.
  • Crafty
  • Mighty but not by his own power (Revelation 17)
  • This is total deceit, trickery, false miracles, etc.
  • This is the anti-Christ
    • False miracles
    • False peace
    • Stand up to Jesus (Revelation 13)
    • Destroyed by Jesus Himself, no human intervention
  • This is the White to the Red horse of the apocolypse
  • Will solve economic problems, Middle East problems, religious problems

(Matthew 24:15)
When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:)

(Mark 13:14)
But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,)
then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains:


(Revelation 6:4)
And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.

(1 Thessalonians 5:3)
For when they shall say, Peace and safety; then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as travail upon a woman with child; and they shall not escape.

(Jeremiah 6:14)
They have healed also the hurt of the daughter of my people slightly, saying, Peace, peace; when there is no peace.

(Daniel 8:26)
And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true: wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it shall be for many days.
  • This past history whch was under Antiochus Epiphanes was to be repeated, in the future, only much, much worse.
(Daniel 8:27)
And I Daniel fainted, and was sick certain days; afterward I rose up, and did the king's business; and I was astonished at the vision, but none understood it.
  • All Prophecies in Chapter 8 were fulfilled within 200 years. 
  • The second, double fulfillment is future and very soon
  • To view Revelation on earth in the flesh is sickening, what will happen then and there.
The chapter has a double fulfillment.  One was Antiochus Epiphanes, the last, the very last, fulfillment is the anti-Christ.  The end is without our help, without an army, without a war, and finally certain, and certainly final.  The enemy is crushed by the Word of God.  Many days for Daniel is now our time, the Last Days.

Daniel Chapter 9